Etymology
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concave (adj.)
Origin and meaning of concave

"incurved," early 15c., from Old French concave (14c.) or directly from Latin concavus "hollow, arched, vaulted, curved," from con-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + cavus "hollow" (from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole").

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coelomate (adj.)

"having a body cavity distinct from the intestinal cavity," 1883, from Coelomata (1877), from Modern Latin neuter plural of coelomatus, from Greek koilomat- "hollow, cavity," from koilos "hollow, hollowed out, spacious, deep," from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole."

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spelunk (n.)
"a cave, cavern, a vault," c. 1300, from Old French spelonque (13c.) or directly from Latin spelunca "a cave, cavern, grotto," from Greek spelynx (accusative spelynga, genitive spelyngos) "a cave, cavern," from spelos "a cave." An adjective, speluncar "of a cave" is recorded from 1855.
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gulf (n.)

late 14c., "profound depth," from Old French golf "a gulf, whirlpool," from Italian golfo "a gulf, a bay," from Late Latin colfos, from Greek kolpos "bay, gulf of the sea," earlier "trough between waves, fold of a loose garment," originally "bosom," the common notion being "curved shape." This is from PIE *kuolp- "arch, curve, vault" (compare Old English hwealf"vault," a-hwielfan "to overwhelm," Old Norse holfinn "vaulted," Old High German welban "to vault").

Latin sinus underwent the same development, being used first for "bosom," later for "gulf" (and in Medieval Latin, "hollow curve or cavity in the body"). The geographic sense "large tract of water extending into the land" (larger than a bay, smaller than a sea, but the distinction is not exact and not always observed) is in English from c. 1400, replacing Old English sæ-earm. Figurative sense of "a wide interval" is from 1550s. The U.S. Gulf States so called from 1836. The Gulf Stream (1775) takes its name from the Gulf of Mexico.

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grotto (n.)
"picturesque cavern or cave," 1610s, from Italian grotta, earlier cropta, a corruption of Latin crypta "vault, cavern," from Greek krypte "hidden place" (see crypt). Terminal -o may be from its being spelled that way in many translations of Dante's "Divine Comedy."
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coe (n.)

"hut built by miners over a mine shaft," to store their equipment, etc., 1650s, from some source akin to Dutch kouw, German kaue in the same sense, from West Germanic *kauja-, an early borrowing of Latin cavea "hollow," from cavus "a hollow" (from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole").

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thalamus (n.)
plural thalami, 1753, "the receptacle of a flower," Modern Latin, from Latin thalamus "inner chamber, sleeping room" (hence, figuratively, "marriage, wedlock"), from Greek thalamos "inner chamber, bedroom," related to thalame "den, lair," tholos "vault, vaulted building." Used in English since 1756 of a part of the forebrain where a nerve appears to originate.
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excavate (v.)

"to hollow out, make hollow by digging or scooping, or by removing extraneous matter," 1590s, from Latin excavatus, past participle of excavare "to hollow out," from ex "out" (see ex-) + cavare "to hollow, hollow out," from cavus "cave" (from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole"). Related: Excavated; excavating.

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cope (n.)

c. 1200, "large outer garment, cloak, mantle," late 13c. in the specific ecclesiastical sense of "large mantle of silk or other material worn by priests or bishops over the alb on special occasions," from Medieval Latin capa "cloak," from Late Latin cappa (see cap (n.)). It was used figuratively for the "cloak" of night's darkness, from which it was extended to "vault of the sky" in the once-common poetic phrase cope of heaven (late 14c.).

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palate (n.)

late 14c., "roof of the mouth of a human or animal; the parts which separate the oral from the nasal cavity," from Old French palat and directly from Latin palatum "roof of the mouth," also "a vault," which is perhaps of Etruscan origin [Klein], but de Vaan suggests an IE root meaning "flat, broad, wide." It was popularly considered to be the seat of the sense of taste, hence transferred meaning "sense of taste" (late 14c.), which also was in classical Latin.

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