Etymology
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tuber (n.)
"thick underground stem," 1660s, from Latin tuber "edible root, truffle; lump, bump, swelling," from PIE *tubh-, from root *teue- "to swell."
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Eustachian tube (n.)
so called for Italian physician Bartolomeo Eustachio (d.1574), who discovered the passages from the ears to the throat. His name is from Latin Eustachius (see Eustace).
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tubercular (adj.)
1799, "characterized by tubers," from Latin tuberculum (see tubercle) + -ar. From 1898 as "having tuberculosis."
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tubular (adj.)
1670s, "having the form of a tube or pipe," from Latin tubulus "a small pipe" (see tube) + -ar. Teen slang sense attested by 1982, Valspeak, apparently from surfers' use of tube as slang for a hollow, curling wave, ideal for riding (1962).
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tubing (n.)
recreational pastime of riding a river on a truck tire inner tube, 1975; see tube (n.).
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tuba (n.)
1852 in reference to a modern, large, low-pitched brass musical instrument, from French tuba, from Latin tuba (plural tubae) "straight bronze war trumpet" (as opposed to the crooked bucina), related to tubus (see tube (n.)).
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tuberculosis (n.)
1860, "disease characterized by tubercules," a medical Latin hybrid, from Latin tuberculum "small swelling, pimple," diminutive of tuber "lump" (from PIE root *teue- "to swell") + -osis, a suffix of Greek origin. So called in reference to the tubercules which form in the lungs. Originally in reference to any disease characterized by tubercules; since the discovery in 1882 of the tubercule bacillus by German bacteriologist Robert Koch (1843-1910) restricted to disease caused by this. Abbreviation T.B. attested from 1912.
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tubercle (n.)
1570s, from Latin tuberculum "a small swelling," diminutive of tuber "lump" (from PIE root *teue- "to swell").
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cupola (n.)

in architecture, a type of vault or small dome, 1540s, from Italian cupola, from Late Latin cupula "a little tub," diminutive of Latin cupa "cask, barrel" (see cup (n.)). Hence "the rounded top of any structure."

The Italian word signifies a hemispherical roof which covers a circular building, like the Pantheon at Rome or the temple of Vesta at Tivoli. Most modern cupolas are semi-elliptical, cut through their shortest diameter; but the greater number of ancient cupolas were hemispherical. In colloquial use, the cupola is often considered as a diminutive dome, or the name is specifically applied to a small structure rising above a roof and often having the er of a tower or lantern, and in no sense that of a dome. [Century Dictionary, 1897]
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cynic (n.)

1550s, "one of the ancient sect of philosophy founded by Antisthenes," from Latinized form of Greek kynikos "a follower of Antisthenes," literally "dog-like," from kyōn (genitive kynos) "dog" (from PIE root *kwon- "dog").

Supposedly the name is a reference to the coarseness of life and sneering surliness of the philosophers, and the popular association even in ancient times was "dog-like" (Lucian has kyniskos "a little cynic," literally "puppy").

But more likely it is from Kynosarge "The Gray Dog," the name of the gymnasium outside ancient Athens (for the use of those who were not pure Athenians) where Antisthenes (a pupil of Socrates), taught. Diogenes was the most famous. Meaning "sneering sarcastic person" is from 1590s. As an adjective from 1630s.

[Diogenes] studied philosophy under Antisthenes, a crusty type who hated students, emphasized self-knowledge, discipline, and restraint, and held forth at a gymnasium named The Silver Hound in the old garden district outside the city. It was open to foreigners and the lower classes, and thus to Diogenes. Wits of the time made a joke of its name, calling its members stray dogs, hence cynic (doglike), a label that Diogenes made into literal fact, living with a pack of stray dogs, homeless except for a tub in which he slept. He was the Athenian Thoreau. [Guy Davenport, "Seven Greeks"]
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