Etymology
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grosbeak (n.)
general name for a bird with a large bill, 1670s, partial translation of French grosbec; see gross (adj.) + beak.
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id (n.)
1924, in Joan Riviere's translation of Freud's "Das Ich und das Es" (1923), from Latin id "it" (as a translation of German es "it" in Freud's title), used in psychoanalytical theory to denote the unconscious instinctual force. Latin id is from PIE pronominal stem *i- (see yon).
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bas-relief (n.)
1660s, from French bas-relief, a loan-translation of Italian basso-rilievo "low relief, raised work." See bass (adj.) + relief.
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superconductor (n.)

1913, translation of Dutch suprageleider, coined by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. See super- + conductor.

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metaphrastic (adj.)

"close or literal in translation," 1752, from Greek metaphrastikos "paraphrastic," from metaphrasis "paraphrase," from metaphrazein "to paraphrase, translate," from meta- "change" (see meta-) + phrazein "to tell, declare, point out, show" (see phrase (n.)). Metaphrasis as "a translation," especially one done word-by-word, is in English from 1560s. Related: Metaphrastical; metaphrastically (1570s).

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ideal (n.)
"(hypothetical) perfect person, thing, or state," 1796, in a translation of Kant, from ideal (adj.). Hence "standard or model of perfection" (1849).
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bisexuality (n.)
"attraction to both sexes" 1892, in translation of Krafft-Ebing; see bisexual + -ity. Earlier "quality of having the organs of both sexes" (1850).
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super-ego (n.)
also superego, "that part of the psyche which controls the impulses of the id," 1924, as a translation of German über-Ich; see super- and ego.
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foreword (n.)
"introduction to a literary work," 1842, from fore- + word (n.); perhaps a loan-translation of German Vorwort "preface," modeled on Latin praefatio "preface."
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crown-prince (n.)

"eldest son or other heir-apparent of a monarch," 1791, a translation of German kronprinz; see crown (n.) + prince

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