Etymology
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penne (n.)

pasta in the form of tubes cut diagonally, by 1981, from Italian penne (1875), an extended use of the plural of penna, literally "quill," from Latin penna (see pen (n.1)). So called because the oblique cut resembles the writing tip of a quill pen. 

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stiff (v.)
late 14c., "to make stiff," from stiff (adj.). Meaning "fail to tip" is from 1939, originally among restaurant and hotel workers, probably from stiff (n.), perhaps in slang sense of "corpse" (because dead men pay no tips), or from the "contemptible person" sense. Extended by 1950 to "cheat."
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miscue (n.)

by 1873, in billiards, "failure to strike the ball properly with the cue; accidental slip of the cue at the moment of making a stroke, causing the tip to glance off the ball," from mis- (1) or perhaps miss (v.) + cue (n.2) in the billiards sense. General sense is attested by 1883.

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Sicily 
island off the southwest tip of Italy, from Latin Sicilia, from Greek Sikelia, from Sikeloi (plural) "Sicilians," from the name of an ancient people living along the Tiber, whence part of them emigrated to the island that was thereafter named for them. The Greeks distinguished Sikeliotes "a Greek colonist in Sicily" from Sikelos "a native Sicilian." Related: Sicilian.
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cairn (n.)
"large, conical heap of stone," especially of the type common in Scotland and Wales and also found elsewhere in Britain, 1530s, from Scottish carne, akin to Gaelic carn "heap of stones, rocky hill" and Gaulish karnon "horn," perhaps from PIE *ker-n- "highest part of the body, horn," thus "tip, peak" (see horn (n.)).
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snub (v.)
mid-14c., "to check, reprove, rebuke," from Old Norse snubba "to curse, chide, snub, scold, reprove." The ground sense is perhaps "to cut off," and the word probably is related to snip. Compare Swedish snobba "lop off, snuff (a candle)," Old Norse snubbotr "snubbed, nipped, with the tip cut off." Meaning "treat coldly" appeared early 18c. Related: Snubbed; snubbing.
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cape (n.2)

"promontory, piece of land jutting into a sea or lake," late 14c., from Old French cap "cape; head," from Latin caput "headland, head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). The Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa has been the Cape since 1660s. Old sailors called low cloud banks that could be mistaken for landforms on the horizon Cape fly-away (1769).

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hip-hop 
also hiphop, music style, 1982. Reduplication with vowel variation (as in tip-top, sing-song); OED reports use of hip hop (adv.) with a sense of "successive hopping motion" dating back to 1670s. The term in its modern sense comes from its use in the early rap lyrics of the genre, notably Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five and The Sugarhill Gang in "Rapper's Delight."
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nock (n.)

"a notch," specifically, in archery, "the notch on the horn of a bow," where the string is fastened, also "notch on the end of an arrow," which rests on the string, late 14c., nokke, a word of uncertain origin, probably from a Scandinavian source (such as Swedish nock "notch"), or a continental Germanic one such as Low German nokk, Middle Dutch nocke, Dutch nok "tip of a sail" or other similar words denoting projections or tips. Perhaps connected to nook.

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dental (adj.)

1590s, "of or pertaining to teeth," from French dental "of teeth" or Medieval Latin dentalis, from Latin dens (genitive dentis) "tooth" (from PIE root *dent- "tooth"). As "connected with or used in dentistry," 1826. In grammar, "formed or pronounced at or near the front upper teeth, with the tip or front of the tongue," 1590s. As a noun, "sound formed by placing the end of the tongue against or near the upper teeth," 1794. Related: Dentally; dentality.

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