principal Hindu sacred book, 1776, Reig Beid, from Sanskrit rigveda, from rg- "praise, hymn, spoken stanza," literally "brightness" (from PIE *erkw- "to radiate, beam; praise") + veda "knowledge" (from PIE *weid-o-, from root *weid- "to see"). A thousand hymns, orally transmitted, probably dating from before 1000 B.C.E. Related: Rig-vedic.
1680s, from French billion (originally byllion in Chuquet's unpublished "Le Triparty en la Science des Nombres," 1484; copied by De la Roche, 1520); see bi- "two" + million. A million million in Britain and Germany (numeration by groups of sixes), which was the original sense; subsequently altered in French to "a thousand million" (numeration by groups of threes) and picked up in that form in U.S., "due in part to French influence after the Revolutionary War" [David E. Smith, "History of Mathematics," 1925]. France reverted to the original meaning in 1948. British usage is truer to the etymology, but U.S. sense is said to be increasingly common there in technical writing.
In Italian arithmetics from the last quarter of the fifteenth century the words bilione or duilione, trilione, quadrilione or quattrilione, quintilione, cinquilione, or quinquilione, sestione or sestilione, settilione, ottilione, noeilione and decilione occur as common abbreviations of due volte millioni, tre volte millione, etc. In other countries these words came into use much later, although one French writer, Nicolas Chuquet, mentions them as early as 1484, in a book not printed until 1881. The Italians had, besides, another system of numeration, proceeding by powers of a thousand. The French, who like other northern peoples, took most if not all their knowledge of modern or Arabic arithmetic from the Italians, early confounded the two systems of Italian numeration, counting in powers of a thousand, but adopting the names which properly belong to powers of a million. [Century Dictionary]
"one-tenth of a cent," 1786, an original U.S. currency unit but now used only for tax calculation purposes, shortening of Latin millesimum "one-thousandth part," from mille "a thousand" (see million). Formed on the analogy of cent, which is short for Latin centesimus "one hundredth" (of a dollar). Compare mil.
mid-15c., militari, "pertaining to or befitting soldiers; used, done, or brought about by soldiers," from Old French militaire (14c.) and directly from Latin militaris "of soldiers or war, of military service, warlike," from miles (genitive militis) "soldier," a word of unknown origin.
Perhaps ultimately from Etruscan, or else meaning "one who marches in a troop," and thus connected to Sanskrit melah "assembly," Greek homilos "assembled crowd, throng." De Vaan writes, "It is tempting to connect mīlia [pl.] 'thousand(s)', hence *mīli-it- 'who goes with/by the thousand' ...." Related: Militarily. Old English had militisc, from Latin.
Military police is from 1827. Military age, at which one becomes liable to military service, is by 1737. Military-industrial complex was coined 1961 in the farewell speech of U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Oh the torn up ticket stubs
From a hundred thousand mugs
Now washed away with dead dreams in the rain;
And the car-park's going up
And they're pulling down the pubs
And it's just another bloody rainy day
[The Pogues, "White City," 1989]
The Author goes on, and tells us, "that the two thousand hogs were not driven into the sea by evil spirits, but by the two madmen, who, in one of their frantic fits, frightened them into it."— But is it not more than intimated that the men were restored to their right mind before the hogs took to their heels? Besides, that two madmen should drive two thousand such ungovernable creatures as hogs one way, does, I think, exceed the belief of any hog-driver on the road, if not of the pen-driver in his closet. [introduction to "Beelzebub Driving and Drowning his Hogs," a sermon on Mark v.12, 13, by James Burgess, 1820]