Etymology
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*gwhi- 
*gwhī-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "thread, tendon."

It forms all or part of: defile (n.) "narrow passage;" enfilade; filament; file (v.1) "place (papers) in consecutive order for future reference;" filigree; filipendulous; fillet; profile.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan jya- "bowstring;" Latin filum "a thread, string;" Armenian jil "sinew, string, line;" Lithuanian gysla "vein, sinew;" Old Church Slavonic zila "vein."
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spatial (adj.)
1840 (spacial is from 1838), "occupying space," from Latin spatium + adjectival suffix -al (1); formed in English as an adjective to space (n.), to go with temporal. Meaning "of or relating to space" is from 1857. Related: Spatially.
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radicle (n.)

1670s, in botany, "rootlet, part of the embryo of a plant which develops into the primary root," from Latin radicula, diminutive of radix "root" (from PIE root *wrād- "branch, root"). Anatomical sense of "branch of a nerve, vein, etc. resembling a root" is by 1830.

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Ghibelline (n.)
adherent of the emperor in medieval Italy (as opposed to the temporal power of the pope), 1570s, from Italian Ghibellino, Italianized form of German Waiblingen, in Württemberg, seat of the Hohenstaufens at the time war began between that house and the Guelphs (q.v.).
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jugular (adj.)
1590s, "pertaining to the throat or neck" (especially and originally in reference to the great veins of the neck), from Modern Latin jugularis, from Latin iugulum "collarbone, throat, neck," diminutive of iugum "yoke" (from PIE root *yeug- "to join"). As a noun, 1610s, short for jugular vein.
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blessing (n.)
Old English bletsunga, bledsunge, verbal noun from bless. Meaning "a gift from God, temporal or spiritual benefit" is from mid-14c. In sense of "religious invocation before a meal" it is recorded from 1738. Phrase blessing in disguise is recorded from 1746.
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priestcraft (n.)

late 15c., "business of being a priest, exercise of priestly functions," from priest + craft (n.). After rise of Protestantism and the Enlightenment, it acquired a pejorative sense of "arts and devices of ambitious priests for attaining and holding temporal power and social control" (1680s).

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phlebotomy (n.)

"blood-letting," c. 1400, flebotomye, fleobotomie, from Old French flebotomie (13c., Modern French phlébotomie) and directly from Medieval Latin phlebotomia, from Greek phlebotomia "blood-letting," from phlebotomos "opening veins," from phleps (genitive phlebos) "a vein" (a word of uncertain origin) + tomē "a cutting" (from PIE root *tem- "to cut").

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tempestuous (adj.)
late 14c., from Late Latin tempestuosus "stormy, turbulent," from Latin tempestas, tempestus "storm, commotion; weather, season; occasion, time," related to tempus "time, season" (see temporal). For sense development, see tempest. The figurative sense is older in English; literal sense is from c. 1500. Related: Tempestuously; tempestuousness.
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Mahdi (n.)

1792, from Arabic mahdiy, literally "he who is guided aright," past participle of hada "to lead in the right way." In Islamic belief, a spiritual and temporal leader destined to appear on earth during the last days. Applied c. 1880 to insurrectionary leaders in the Sudan who claimed to be him. Related: Mahdism; Mahdiism; Mahdian.

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