"stout stick," 1869, of unknown origin. Also as a verb, "to beat with a cosh." Related: Coshed; coshing.
Other English words of the same form, all apparently unrelated, include a provincial word for "a cottage, a hovel" (late 15c.), a provincial word for "the husk of corn" (1787), and an 18c. Scottish adjective meaning "neat, snug, quiet, comfortable."
"stout cotton fabric ornamented in the loom with raised stripes or fancy figures," mid-15c., dimesey, from Italian dimiti, plural of dimito, a name for a kind of strong cotton cloth, from Medieval Latin dimitum, from Greek dimitos "of double thread," from di- (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + mitos "warp thread, thread," a word of uncertain etymology.
1670s, "filled space, the fullness of matter in space" (opposite of vacuum), from Latin plenum (spatium) "full (space)," neuter of adjective plenus "full, filled, greatly crowded; stout, pregnant; abundant, abounding; complete," from PIE root *pele- (1) "to fill." Used to denote fullness in general, hence the meaning "of a full assembly of legislators" is recorded by 1772.
also drilling, kind of coarse, stout twilled cloth, 1743, from French drill, from German drillich "heavy, coarse cotton or linen fabric," from Old High German adjective drilich "threefold," from Latin trilix (genitive trilicis) "having three threads, triple-twilled," from tri- (see tri-) + licium "thread," a word of unknown etymology. So called in reference to the method of weaving it.
late 13c., "round wooden tub," perhaps from Middle Dutch kitte "jug, tankard, wooden container," a word of unknown origin. Meaning "collection of personal effects," especially for traveling (originally in reference to a soldier), is from 1785, a transfer of sense from the chest to the articles in it; that of "outfit of tools for a workman" is from 1851. Of drum sets, by 1929. Meaning "article to be assembled by the buyer" is from 1930s. The soldier's stout kit-bag is from 1898.
early 15c., "extract, preparation," from Latin valentia "strength, capacity," from valentem (nominative valens) "strong, stout, vigorous, powerful," present participle of valere "be strong" (from PIE root *wal- "to be strong"). Chemistry sense of "relative combining capacity of an element with other atoms when forming compounds or molecules" is recorded from 1884, from German Valenz (1868), from the Latin word. Related: Valency.
Old English bolt "short, stout arrow with a heavy head;" also "crossbow for throwing bolts," from Proto-Germanic *bultas (source also of Old Norse bolti, Danish bolt, Dutch bout, German Bolzen), perhaps originally "arrow, missile," and from PIE *bheld- "to knock, strike" (source also of Lithuanian beldžiu "I knock," baldas "pole for striking").
Applied since Middle English to other short metal rods (especially those with knobbed ends): the meanings "stout pin for fastening objects together" and "part of a lock which springs out" are both from c. 1400. A bolt of canvas (c. 1400) was so called for its shape.
The meaning "sliding metal rod that thrusts the cartridge into the chamber of a firearm" is from 1859. From the notion of an arrow's flight comes the bolt of lightning (1530s) and the sense of "a sudden spring or start" (1540s). Adverbial phrase bolt upright (like a bolt or arrow) is from late 14c.
"drink of champagne and stout" (also called a black velvet), 1910, named for the German chancellor (1815-1898), who was said to have been fond of it. The surname is said to be short for Biscofsmark "bishop's boundary." The capital city of North Dakota was named 1873 in honor of the chancellor in recognition of the investment of German bondholders in the railroad through there.
"large bottle with a bulging body and a narrow neck," typically holding about 5 gallons, 1769, partial translation and word-play from French damejeanne (late 17c.), literally "Lady Jane," a term used for a large globular wicker-wrapped bottle, perhaps because its shape suggested a stout woman in the costume of the period. A general Mediterranean word, with forms found in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Arabic.