1670s, "filled space, the fullness of matter in space" (opposite of vacuum), from Latin plenum (spatium) "full (space)," neuter of adjective plenus "full, filled, greatly crowded; stout, pregnant; abundant, abounding; complete," from PIE root *pele- (1) "to fill." Used to denote fullness in general, hence the meaning "of a full assembly of legislators" is recorded by 1772.
"stout stick," 1869, of unknown origin. Also as a verb, "to beat with a cosh." Related: Coshed; coshing.
Other English words of the same form, all apparently unrelated, include a provincial word for "a cottage, a hovel" (late 15c.), a provincial word for "the husk of corn" (1787), and an 18c. Scottish adjective meaning "neat, snug, quiet, comfortable."
"stout cotton fabric ornamented in the loom with raised stripes or fancy figures," mid-15c., dimesey, from Italian dimiti, plural of dimito, a name for a kind of strong cotton cloth, from Medieval Latin dimitum, from Greek dimitos "of double thread," from di- (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + mitos "warp thread, thread," a word of uncertain etymology.
c. 1300, "bondsman; common man, man of low birth," from Old Norse karl "man (as opposed to "woman"), male, freeman," from Proto-Germanic *karlon- (source also of Dutch karel "a fellow," Old High German karl "a man, husband), the same base that produced Old English ceorl "man of low degree" (see churl) and the masc. proper name Carl.
The Mellere was a stout carle for the nones [Chaucer]
Old English bolt "short, stout arrow with a heavy head;" also "crossbow for throwing bolts," from Proto-Germanic *bultas (source also of Old Norse bolti, Danish bolt, Dutch bout, German Bolzen), perhaps originally "arrow, missile," and from PIE *bheld- "to knock, strike" (source also of Lithuanian beldžiu "I knock," baldas "pole for striking").
Applied since Middle English to other short metal rods (especially those with knobbed ends): meanings "stout pin for fastening objects together" and "part of a lock which springs out" are both from c. 1400. A bolt of canvas (c. 1400) was so called for its shape. Adverbial phrase bolt upright (like a bolt or arrow) is from late 14c. Meaning "sliding metal rod that thrusts the cartridge into the chamber of a firearm" is from 1859. From the notion of an arrow's flight comes the bolt of lightning (1530s) and the sense of "a sudden spring or start" (1540s).
"large bottle with a bulging body and a narrow neck," typically holding about 5 gallons, 1769, partial translation and word-play from French damejeanne (late 17c.), literally "Lady Jane," a term used for a large globular wicker-wrapped bottle, perhaps because its shape suggested a stout woman in the costume of the period. A general Mediterranean word, with forms found in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Arabic.
"large and thriving," 1560s, present-participle adjective from chop (v.). Compare strapping, whopping in similar sense. Chopper "a stout, lusty child" is colloquial from c. 1600.
chopping. An epithet frequently applied to infants, by way of ludicrous commendation: imagined by Skinner to signify lusty, from cas Sax. by others to mean a child that would bring money at a market. Perhaps a greedy, hungry child, likely to live. [Johnson]