Etymology
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chine (n.)

"spine, backbone," c. 1300, from Anglo-French achine, Old French eschine (11c., Modern French échine), a word of uncertain origin, perhaps from Germanic (compare Old English scinu "shinbone;" see shin).

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invertebrate (adj.)
"having naturally no backbone," 1819, from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vertebratus (Pliny), from vertebra "joint or articulation of the body, joint of the spine" (see vertebra). As a noun, "an invertebrate animal," 1826.
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lordosis (n.)
curvature of the spine, 1704, Modern Latin, from Greek lordosis, from lordos "bent backwards," a word of uncertain origin, with possible cognates in Armenian, Celtic, and Germanic. From 1941 in reference to the mating position assumed by some female mammals. Related: Lordotic.
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rachio- 

also rhachio-, before vowels rachi-, word-forming element meaning "spinal, pertaining to the vertebrae," from Latinized form of Greek rhakhis "spine, back," metaphorically "ridge (of a mountain), rib of a leaf," a word of uncertain origin. Compare Greek rhakhos "thorn hedge."

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sacral (adj.)

1767, in anatomy, "of or pertaining to the sacrum," the bone at the base of the spine (see sacrum), from Modern Latin sacralis. In anthropology, "pertaining to religious rites," 1882, from Latin sacrum "sacred thing, rite," neuter of sacer "sacred" (see sacred). Related: sacralization; sacrality.

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chiropractic 

in reference to the curing of diseases by manipulation of the spine or other bodily structures, coined in American English, 1898 (adj.); 1899 (n.), from chiro- "hand" + praktikos "practical" (see practical), the whole of it loosely meant as "done by hand."

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eglantine (n.)

"sweet briar," c. 1400, from French églantine, from Old French aiglent "dog rose," from Vulgar Latin *aquilentus "rich in prickles," from Latin aculeus "spine, prickle," diminutive of acus "a needle" (from PIE root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce").

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scoliosis (n.)

lateral curvature of the spine, 1706, medical Latin, from Greek skoliosis "crookedness," from skolios "bent, curved," from PIE root *skel- "bend, curve," with derivatives referring to crooked parts of the body (as in Greek skelos "leg, limb; Latin scelus "malice, badness, crime;" Old High German scelah, Old English sceolh "oblique, curved, squinting;" Albanian çalë "lame"). Related: Scoliotic.

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Dimetrodon (n.)

extinct reptile-like animal of the Permian period, best-known for the large spine-sail on its back but named for its large teeth of different sizes, by 1878, literally "two measures of teeth," from Latinized form of Greek di- "two" (see di- (1)) + metron "measure" (from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure") + odonys "tooth" (from PIE root *dent- "tooth").

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chaeto- 

before vowels chaet-, word-forming element meaning "hair," also, in scientific use, "spine, bristle," from Latinized form of Greek khaite "long, loose, flowing hair" (of persons, also of horses, lions), from an old PIE word for "hair, mane," source also of Avestan gaesa- "curly hair," gaesu- "'curly haired," Modern Persian ges "hair that hangs down, curls;" Middle Irish gaiset "bristly hair."

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