Etymology
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strain (v.)

c. 1300, "tie, bind, fasten, gird," from present participle stem of Old French estreindre "bind tightly, clasp, squeeze," from Latin stringere (2) "draw tight, bind tight, compress, press together," from PIE root *streig- "to stroke, rub, press" (source also of Lithuanian strėgti "congeal, freeze, become stiff;" Greek strangein "twist;" Old High German strician "mends nets;" Old English streccian "to stretch;" German stramm, Dutch stram "stiff").

From late 14c. as "tighten; make taut," also "exert oneself; overexert (a body part)," Sense of "press through a filter, put (a liquid) through a strainer" is from early 14c. (implied in strainer); that of "to stress beyond measure, carry too far, make a forced interpretation of" is from mid-15c. Related: Strained; straining.

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pea (n.)

"the seed of a hardy leguminous vine," a well-known article of food, early or mid-17c., a false singular from Middle English pease (plural pesen), which was both single and collective (as wheat, corn) but the "s" sound was mistaken for the plural inflection. From Old English pise (West Saxon), piose (Mercian) "pea," from Late Latin pisa, variant of Latin pisum "pea," probably a loan-word from Greek pison "the pea," a word of unknown origin (Klein suggests it is from Thracian or Phrygian).

In Southern U.S. and the Caribbean, used of other legumes as well. Pea soup "soup made from peas" is recorded by 1711 (as pease-soup); the term was applied to London fogs at least since 1849. Pea-green as a hue resembling fresh peas is by 1752. Pea-shooter "toy consisting of a long straw or tube through which dried peas may be blown" is attested from 1803.

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porridge (n.)

1530s, porage "thickened soup of vegetables boiled in water, with or without meat," an alteration of pottage, perhaps from influence of Middle English porray, porreie "leek broth," which is from Old French poree "leek soup," from Vulgar Latin *porrata, from Latin porrum "leek." Or perhaps the modern word is a corruption of porray itself, by influence of pottage.

 The spelling with -idge is attested from c. 1600. The meaning "food made by slowly stirring meal or flour of oats, peas, etc. into water or milk while boiling till a thick mass is formed" is from 1640s, first in Scottish.

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borscht (n.)
"Russian soup made with beets and cabbage," 1884, from Russian borshch "cow parsnip," which was an original recipe ingredient. Borscht belt "region of predominantly Jewish resorts in and around the Catskill Mountains of New York" (also known as the Yiddish Alps) is by 1938.
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gazpacho (n.)

type of Spanish vegetable soup notable for being served cold, by 1742 in translations of "Don Quixote;" from 1590s as a Spanish word in Spanish-English dictionaries. According to Ayto ("Diner's Dictionary") the name is of Arabic origin and means literally "soaked bread." Perhaps in reference to the garlic croutons that traditionally are served with it.

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ab ovo 
"from the beginning," Latin, literally "from the egg," from ab "from, away from" (see ab-) + ablative of ovum "egg" (see ovum). The expression is said to refer to the Roman custom of beginning the meal with eggs, as also in the expression ab ovo usque ad mala, "from the egg to the apples" (Horace), hence "from the beginning to the end" (compare early 20c. soup to nuts).
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a la mode (adv.)
also alamode, 1640s, from French à la mode (15c.), literally "in the (prevailing) fashion" (see a la + mode (n.2)). In 17c., sometimes nativized as all-a-mode. Cookery sense in reference to a dessert served with ice cream is 1903, American English; earlier it was used of a kind of beef stew or soup (1753).
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mock (adj.)

prefixed to a noun, "feigned, counterfeit, spurious; having a close (but deceptive) resemblance," 1540s, from mock, verb and noun. Mock-heroic "counterfeiting or burlesquing the heroic style or character" is attested from 1711 (Addison), describing a satirical use of a serious form; mock-turtle "calf's head stewed or baked and dressed to resemble a turtle," is from 1758; as a kind of soup by 1783.

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hodgepodge (n.)
also hodge podge, hodge-podge, early 15c., hogpoch, alteration of hotchpotch (late 14c.) "a kind of stew," especially "one made with goose, herbs, spices, wine, and other ingredients," earlier an Anglo-French legal term meaning "collection of property in a common 'pot' before dividing it equally" (late 13c.), from Old French hochepot "stew, soup." First element from hocher "to shake," from a Germanic source (such as Middle High German hotzen "shake").
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consomme (n.)

1815, "strong, clear soup containing juices of meat extracted by long cooking," from French consommé, noun use of past participle of consommer "to consume" (12c.), from Latin consummare "to complete, finish, perfect," from assimilated form of com "together, with" (see com-) + summa "sum, total," from summus "highest" (see sum (n.)). The French verb was influenced in sense by consummer, from Latin consumere "to consume."

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