Etymology
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digamma (n.)

1550s, "the letter F;" 1690s as the name of a former letter in the Greek alphabet, corresponding to -F- (apparently originally pronounced with the force of English consonantal -w-), from Latin digamma "F," from Greek digamma, literally "double gamma" (because it resembles two gammas, one atop the other). The sixth letter of the original Greek alphabet, it corresponded to Semitic waw.

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obol (n.)

ancient Greek small coin and weight, 1660s, from Latin obolus, from Greek obolos, the name of a coin (sixth part of a drachme); identical with obelos "a spit, needle, broach; bar of metal used as a coin or weight" (see obelisk). So called from the original shape. Middle English had obolus as the name of a small measure of weight, also ob "halfpenny," from Latin ob., abbreviation of obolus.

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consequences (n.)

see consequence. As the name of a round game, attested from 1796.

A game in which one player writes down an adjective, the second the name of a man, the third an adjective, the fourth the name of a woman, the fifth what he said, the sixth what she said, the seventh the consequence, etc., etc., no one seeing what the others have written. After all have written, the paper is read. [Century Dictionary]
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Sistine (adj.)
1769, literally "pertaining to Pope Sixtus," from Italian sistino, from Sixtus, name of five popes, from Latin sextus "sixth" (see Sextus). The "chapel" is named for Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere), pope 1471-84, who had it built. The painting by Raphael known as the Sistine Madonna is so called because it also shows Sixtus II, a 3c. martyr and saint; it is better known now for the two cherubs at the bottom of the picture who by 1900 were well-known in isolation from the rest of the picture in engravings, etc.
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A 

first letter of the Roman alphabet, based on Greek alpha (see alpha). In music from c. 1600 as the name of the sixth note of the natural scale; it is the note given by a fixed-tone instrument (usually oboe or organ) to which all the instruments of an orchestra are tuned. As a blood type, 1926, denoting A agglutinogens. The A side of a two-sided record (by 1962, see side (n.)) held the material chosen for promotion. A-bomb, short for atom bomb, was in newspaper headlines by Aug. 8, 1945.

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seventh (adj.)

"next in order after the sixth, last in order of a series of seven; being one of seven equal parts into which a whole is or may be divided;" c. 1300, a new formation from seven + -th (1).

It replaced earlier sevende, seveth, from Old English seofunda (Anglian, Northumbrian), seofoþa (West Saxon), which is from Proto-Germanic *sebundon, *sebunthon (source also of Old Norse sjaundi, Danish syvende, Old Frisian sigunda, Old Saxon sivondo, Old High German sibunto, German siebente, siebte), from *sebun "seven." Compare Sanskrit septatha "seventh."

Compare Middle English niend, ninde, earlier for "ninth," from late Old English nigende; also earlier Middle English tende, tiende "tenth" (cognate with Old Norse tiundi, Old Frisian tianda, Old Saxon tehando).

Used as a noun from late Old English, "the (man, hour, etc.) next in order after the sixth;" by 1550s as "one of the seven equal parts into which a whole may be divided." Related: Seventhly (Middle English seventhli).

In music, by 1590s as "tone on the 7th degree above or below a given tone," also "interval between any tone and a tone the seventh degree above it.

All kinds of sevenths are classed as dissonances, the minor seventh being the most beautiful and the most useful of dissonant intervals. The seventh produced by taking two octaves downward from the sixth harmonic of the given tone is sometimes called the natural seventh; it is sometimes used in vocal music, and on instruments, like the violin, whose intonation is not fixed. [Century Dictionary]

Seventh-day for "Saturday" (the seventh day of the week) is by 1680s in the depaganized weekday names of the Society of Friends. Also in reference to Saturday as the sabbath of the Jews, hence Seventh-Day Adventist (by 1860), etc.

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doomsday (n.)

"day of the last judgment," Middle English domesdai, from Old English domes dæg, from domes, genitive of dom (see doom (n.)) + dæg "day" (see day (n.)).

In medieval England doomsday was expected when the world's age had reached 6,000 years from the creation, which was thought to have been in 5200 B.C.E. Bede, c. 720, complained of being pestered by rustici asking him how many years till the sixth millennium ended. However there is no evidence for the story of a general panic in Christian Europe in the year 1000 C.E.

Doomsday machine as the name of a hypothetical nuclear bomb powerful enough to wipe out human life (or all life) on earth is from 1960.

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vesper (n.)

late 14c., "the evening star," from Old French vespre "evening, nightfall" (12c., Modern French vêpre), from Latin vesper (masc.), vespera (fem.) "evening star, evening, west," related to Greek hesperos, and ultimately from PIE *uekero- "evening, night" (source also of Armenian gišer, Old Church Slavonic večeru, Polish wieczór, Russian večer, Lithuanian vākaras, Welsh ucher, Old Irish fescor "evening"), perhaps an enlarged form of root *we- "down" (source of Sanskrit avah "down, downward"), thus literally "direction in which the sun sets." Meaning "evening" is attested from c. 1600.

Vespers "sixth canonical hour" is attested from 1610s, from plural of Latin vespera "evening;" the native name was evensong (Old English æfen-sang).

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rinky-dink (adj.)

"trivial, old-fashioned, worthless," 1913 (from 1912 as a noun, "antiquated or worthless object"), said to be carnival slang and imitative of the sound of banjo music at parades [Barnhart]; compare ricky-tick "old-fashioned jazz" (1938). But early records suggest otherwise unless there are two words. The earliest senses seem to be as a noun, "maltreatment," especially robbery:

So I felt and saw that I was robbed and I went to look after an officer. I found an officer on the corner of Twenty-fifth street and Sixth avenue. I said, "Officer, I have got the rinky-dink." He knew what it meant all right. He said, "Where? Down at that wench house?" I said, "I guess that is right." [testimony dated New York August 9, 1899, published 1900]

And this chorus from the "Yale Literary Magazine," Feb. 1896:

Rinky dinky, rinky dink,
Stand him up for another drink.
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Satan (n.)

proper name of the supreme evil spirit and great adversary of humanity in Christianity, Old English Satan, from Late Latin Satan (in Vulgate in the Old Testament only), from Greek Satanas, from Hebrew satan "adversary, one who plots against another," from satan "to show enmity to, oppose, plot against," from root s-t-n "one who opposes, obstructs, or acts as an adversary."

In the Septuagint usually translated into Greek as diabolos "slanderer," literally "one who throws (something) across" the path of another (see devil (n.)), though epiboulos "plotter" is once used.

In biblical sources the Hebrew term the satan describes an adversarial role. It is not the name of a particular character. Although Hebrew storytellers as early as the sixth century B.C.E. occasionally introduced a supernatural character whom they called the satan, what they meant was any one of the angels sent by God for the specific purpose of blocking or obstructing human activity. [Elaine Pagels, "The Origin of Satan," 1995]

In Middle English also Satanas, Sathanas.

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