Etymology
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simplex (adj.)
"characterized by a single part," 1590s, from Latin simplex "single, simple, plain, unmixed, uncompounded," literally "onefold," from PIE compound of root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with" + *plac- "-fold," from PIE root *plek- "to plait." The noun is attested from 1892, "simple uncompounded word."
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mini-series (n.)

also miniseries "television series of short duration and on a single theme," 1971, from mini- + series.

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monorail (n.)

"single-rail railway system," 1885, from French; a hybrid; see mono- + rail (n.1).

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monopode (n.)

"one of a fabulous race of men believed to live in the tropics and have but one leg with a single enormous foot," 1816, from Modern Latin monopodes, from mono- "single" + pod-, stem of Greek pous "foot" (from PIE root *ped- "foot").

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unique (adj.)

c. 1600, "single, solitary," from French unique (16c.), from Latin unicus "only, single, sole, alone of its kind," from unus "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique"). Meaning "forming the only one of its kind" is attested from 1610s; erroneous sense of "remarkable, uncommon" is attested from mid-19c. Related: Uniquely; uniqueness.

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duelist (n.)

"one who fights in single combat," 1590s, from duel + -ist.

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monolingual (adj.)

"speaking or using only one language," by 1939, from mono- "single, alone" + ending from bilingual, etc.

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loneling (n.)
"single child" (as opposed to a twin, etc.), 1570s, from lone (adj.) + -ling.
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Sharps (n.)
type of breech-loading single-shot rifle, 1850, from J. Christian Sharps (1811-1874), U.S. gunsmith.
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duel (v.)

"engage in single combat, fight a duel," 1640s, see duel (n.). Related: Dueled; dueling; duelling.

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