Etymology
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grater (n.)
instrument for scraping (bread, ginger, etc.), late 14c., from Old French grateor, agent noun from grater "to scrape, scratch out or off" (see grate (v.)).
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scabies (n.)

skin disease characterized by eruptions and inflammation, c. 1400, "the itch; scabby skin generally," from Latin scabies "mange, itch, roughness," from scabere "to scratch, scrape" (from PIE root *(s)kep-, a base forming words meaning "to cut, scrape, hack," source also of Gothic scaban, Old English sceafan "to scrape, shave;" Greek skaptein "to dig;" Old Church Slavonic skobli "scraper;" Lithuanian skabus "sharp," skabėti "to cut;" Lettish skabrs "splintery, sharp").

Modern medical use in reference to a contagious skin disease due to a parasitic mite is by 1814. The older name for a skin condition or disease was simply scab. Scabbed "afflicted with scabies or mange" is by c. 1300. Related: Scabious.

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radula (n.)

1753, a type of surgical instrument, from Latin radula "scraper, scraping iron," from radere "to scrape" (see raze (v.).  As "tongue or lingual ribbon of a mollusk," by 1853. Related: Radular.

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card (v.2)
"to comb wool," late 14c., from card (n.2) or else from Old French carder, from Old Provençal cardar "to card," from Vulgar Latin *caritare, from Latin carrere "to clean or comb with a card," perhaps from PIE root *kars- "to scrape" (see harsh). Related: Carded; carding.
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paw (v.)

c. 1600, "use the hands roughly, handle clumsily;" also "draw the forefoot along the ground, scrape with the forefoot," from paw (n.). Related: Pawed; pawing. Middle English had pawen "to touch or strike with the paw" (c. 1400).

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shave (v.)

Middle English shaven, from Old English sceafan (strong verb, past tense scof, past participle scafen), "to scrape, shave, or pare away; to polish," from Proto-Germanic *skaban (source also of Old Norse skafa, Middle Dutch scaven, German schaben, Gothic skaban "scratch, shave, scrape"), from PIE *skabh-, collateral form of root *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack" (for which see scabies).

Related: Shaved; shaving. Original strong verb status is preserved in past tense form shaven. As "remove the hair or beard of with a razor" from mid-13c. Intransitive sense of "shave oneself, remove the beard with a razor" is by 1715. The sense of "remove by slicing or paring action of a keen-edged instrument" is from late 14c., as is the general sense of  "cut down gradually by taking off thin pieces." Figurative sense of "to strip (someone) of money or possessions" is attested from late 14c.

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razor (n.)

c. 1300, rasour, "sharp-edged instrument for shaving or cutting hair," from Old French rasor, raseor "a razor" (12c.), from raser "to scrape, shave," from Medieval Latin rasare, frequentative of Latin radere (past participle rasus) "to scrape, shave" (see raze (v.)). Compare Medieval Latin rasorium.

As a verb, by 1827 as "shave with a razor," 1937 as "assault with a razor." The razor clam (1835, American English) is so called because its shell resembles an old folding straight-razor. Razor edge, figurative of sharpness or a fine surface, is by 1680s. Razor-blade is attested by 1816.

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cardoon (n.)
"artichoke-like plant of the Mediterranean lands," 1610s, from French cardon, from Provençal cardon, properly "thistle," from Late Latin cardonem (nominative cardo) "thistle," related to Latin carduus "thistle, artichoke," which is perhaps from PIE root *kars- "to scrape, scratch" (see harsh (adj.)).
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raster (n.)

"scanning field," 1934 in electrical engineering, from German Raster "screen, frame," from Latin rastrum "rake," from rasum, from rodere "to scrape" (see rodent). Related: Rasterization; rasterize. From Latin form rastellum comes French râteau "rake," formerly ratel, originally rastel.

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abrasive (adj.)

"tending to wear or rub off by friction," 1805, from Latin abras-, past-participle stem of abradere "to scrape away, shave off" (see abrasion) + -ive. Figurative sense of "tending to provoke anger" is first recorded 1925. Related: Abrasively; abrasiveness.

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