Etymology
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Clydesdale 
"breed of heavy draught horses," 1786, so called because they were bred in the valley of the Clyde in Scotland. The river name is perhaps literally "cleansing," from a Celtic root akin to Latin cloaca (see cloaca).
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Orkney 

group of islands off the north coast of Scotland, from Old Norse Orkney-jar "Seal Islands," from orkn "seal," which is probably imitative of its bark. With Old Norse ey "island" (compare Jersey). Related: Orcadian; Orkneyman.

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strontium (n.)
light metallic element, 1808, coined in Modern Latin by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) from Strontian, name of a parish in Argyllshire, Scotland, the site of lead mines where strontium was first found, in 1787.
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murk (n.)

"gloom, darkness," c. 1300, myrke, from Old Norse myrkr "darkness," from Proto-Germanic *merkwjo- (source also of Old English mirce "murky, black, dark;" as a noun, "murkiness, darkness," Danish mǿrk "darkness," Old Saxon mirki "dark"); perhaps cognate with Old Church Slavonic mraku, Serbo-Croatian mrak, Russian mrak "darkness;" Lithuanian merkti "shut the eyes, blink," from PIE *mer- "to flicker" (see morn). In Middle English also as an adjective (c. 1300, from Old Norse) and a verb. Sometimes spelled mirk, especially in Scotland. Mirk Monday was long the name in Scotland for the great solar eclipse of March 29, 1652 (April 8, New Style).

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macadamia (n.)

Australian evergreen tree, commercially important for its edible nut, 1904, from Modern Latin (1858), named for Scotland-born chemist Dr. John Macadam, secretary of the Victoria Philosophical Institute, Australia, + abstract noun ending -ia.

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shebeen (n.)
"cabin where unlicensed liquor is sold and drunk," 1781, chiefly in Ireland and Scotland, from Irish seibin "small mug," also "bad ale," diminutive of seibe "mug, bottle, liquid measure." The word immigrated and persisted in South African and West Indian English.
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dissenter (n.)

"one who differs in opinion or declares disagreement," 1630s, agent noun from dissent. In 17c. England and Scotland especially "one who refuses to accept the authority or doctrines, or conform to the rituals of the established church" (with a capital D- from 1670s).

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paisley (n.)
1834 as a type of clothing or material, from Paisley, town in southwest Scotland, where the cloth was originally made. As an adjective by 1900. The town name is literally "church," from Middle Irish baslec, itself from Latin basilica (see basilica).
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lax (n.)
"salmon," from Old English leax (see lox). Cognate with Middle Dutch lacks, German Lachs, Danish laks, etc.; according to OED the English word was obsolete except in the north and Scotland from 17c., reintroduced in reference to Scottish or Norwegian salmon.
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Nova Scotia 

maritime province of Canada, Latin, literally "New Scotland," part of the former French Acadia, it was so named when a settlement grant was made by James I to William Alexander, Earl of Sterling, in 1621. Related: Nova Scotian.

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