late 14c., repēten "to say what one has already said," from Old French repeter "say or do again, get back, demand the return of" (13c., Modern French répéeter) and directly from Latin repetere "do or say again; attack again," from re- "again" (see re-) + petere "to go to; attack; strive after; ask for, beseech" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly").
Meaning "say what another has said" is from 1590s. As an emphatic word in radio broadcasts, 1938. Meaning "do over again; do, make, or perform again" is from 1550s; the specific meaning "to take a course of education over again" is recorded from 1945, American English. Intransitive sense of "perform some distinctive (but unspecified) function again or a second time" is by 1714. Related: Repeated; repeating.
Old English becweðan "to say, speak to, exhort, blame," also "leave by will;" from be- + cweðan "to say," from Proto-Germanic *kwithan (see quoth). The simple verb became obsolete, but its old, strong past tense survived through Middle English as quoth.
The original sense of "say, utter" died out 13c., leaving the word with only the legal sense of "transfer by legacy." Compare bequest. "An old word kept alive in wills" [OED 1st ed.]. Old English bequeðere meant "interpreter, translator." Related: Bequeathed; bequeathing.
1590s, "positive order or command;" 1610s "authoritative rule, maxim, or precept," from Latin dictatum "a thing said, something dictated," noun use of neuter past participle of dictare "say often, prescribe," frequentative of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").
As we say Sensation, we might say also, Ideation; it would be a very useful word; and there is no objection to it, except the pedantic habit of decrying a new term. [James Mill, "Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind," London, 1829]
1818, "to act as a pontiff, say pontifical Mass," from Medieval Latin pontificatus, past participle of pontificare "to be a pontifex," from Latin pontifex (see pontiff). Especially "to assume pompous and dignified airs, issue dogmatic decrees" (1825). Meaning "to say (something) in a pompous or dogmatic way" is from 1922. Related: Pontificated; pontificating.
also mis-speak, late 14c., misspeken, "say amiss," also "speak insultingly (of)," from mis- (1) "badly, wrongly" + speak (v.). From 1590s as "pronounce wrongly;" by 1890 as "speak otherwise than according to one's intentions." Related: Misspeaking; misspoken. Old English missprecan meant "to grumble, murmur;" In Middle English, misispeken "to say sinful things" is from early 13c.
1650s, "authoritative utterance," from Late Latin dictationem (nominative dictatio) "a dictating, dictation," noun of action from past-participle stem of dictare "say often, prescribe," frequentative of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). Meaning "act or practice of expressing orally for another to write down" is by 1727.