Etymology
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gravy (n.)

late 14c. (early 14c. in Anglo-French), from Old French grave, graue, apparently a misspelling of grané "sauce, stew," with -n- misread for -u- — the character used for -v- in medial positions in words in medieval manuscripts. The French word probably originally meant "properly grained, seasoned," from Latin granum "grain, seed" (see grain (n.)).

The meaning "money easily acquired" is attested by 1910; gravy train (by 1899) as something lucrative or productive is said to have been originally railroad slang for a short haul that paid well. Gravy-boat "small, deep dish for holding gravy or sauce" is from 1827.

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guacamole (n.)

"avocado-based dip, spread, or salad," a Mexican dish, 1913, from American Spanish guacamole, originally Mexican, from Nahuatl (Aztecan) ahuaca-molli, from ahuacatl "avocado" + molli "sauce."

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bechamel (n.)
white sauce used in cookery, 1769, from French béchamel, named for Louis XIV's steward, Louis de Béchamel, marquis de Nointel (1630-1703), who perfected it. Gamillscheg identifies him as a great gourmet of the time ("eines bekannten Feinschmeckers des 17. Jhdts.").
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pesto (n.)

green, aromatic, olive oil-based pasta sauce, a Genoese specialty, 1937, from Italian pesto, contracted form of pestato, past participle of pestare "to pound, to crush," in reference to the crushed herbs and garlic in it, from Latin root of pestle.

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condiment (n.)

mid-15c., "a pickling fluid, seasoning, sauce, something used to give relish to food," from Old French condiment (13c.), from Latin condimentum "spice, seasoning, sauce," from condire "to preserve, pickle, season, put fruit in vinegar, wine, spices, etc.," a variant of condere "put together, store," from assimilated form of com "together" (see con-) + -dere "put," from PIE root *dhe- "to put, place."

Related: Condimental. Middle English also had a verb condite (early 15c.) "to season, prepare or preserve with salt, spices, sugar, etc."

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soy (n.)
1670s, saio "soybean-based Asian fish sauce," from Dutch soya, from Japanese soyu, variant of shoyu "soy," from Chinese shi-yu, from shi "fermented soy beans" + yu "oil." Etymology reflects Dutch presence in Japan before English and American merchants began to trade there.
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miso (n.)

type of paste made from fermented soya beans and barley or rice malt, used in Japanese cooking, by 1727 (from 1615 as misso in the log-book of English pilot William Adams, published in 1916), from Japanese, of uncertain etymology; said to be from Middle Korean myècwú, the name of a comparable sauce.

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dope (n.)

1807, American English, "sauce, gravy; any thick liquid," from Dutch doop "thick dipping sauce," from doopen "to dip" (see dip (v.)). Used generally by late 19c. for any mixture or preparation of unknown ingredients.

Extension to "narcotic drug" is by 1889, from practice of smoking semi-liquid opium preparation. Meaning "foolish, stupid person" is older than this (1851) and may be from the notion of "thick-headed," later associated with the idea of "stupefied by narcotics."

Sense of "inside information" (1901) may come from knowing before the race which horse had been drugged to influence performance (to dope (v.) in this sense is attested by 1900). Dope-fiend is attested from 1896, "a victim of the opium habit."

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roux (n.)

in cookery, a sauce made from browned butter or fat and flour, used to thicken soups and gravies, 1813, from French (beurre) roux "browned (butter)," from roux "red, reddish-brown," from Latin russus, which is related to ruber "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy").

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ketchup (n.)

1680s, also spelled catsup which form first appeared in Jonathan Swift's 1730 poem A Panegyrick on the D--n.  This spelling is still in use in U.S., influenced by cat and sup.

In some of the earliest uses described as an East Indian sauce made with fruits and spices, with spelling catchup. If this stated origin is correct, it might be from Tulu kajipu, meaning "curry" and said to derive from kaje, "to chew." Yet the word, usually spelled ketchup, is also described in early use as something resembling anchovies or soy sauce. It is said in modern sources to be from Malay (Austronesian) kichap, a fish sauce, possibly from Chinese koechiap "brine of fish," which, if correct, perhaps is from the Chinese community in northern Vietnam [Terrien de Lacouperie, in "Babylonian and Oriental Record," 1889, 1890]. 

Lockyer's 1711 book "An Account of Trade in India" says: "Soy comes in Tubs from Jappan, and the best Ketchup from Tonqueen [Vietnam]; yet good of both sorts, are made and sold very cheap in China." This suggests that the English were buying in India sauces, which they called ketchup, that were imported from elsewhere and possibly were not all of a single national recipe.

The prepared ingredient appears in English cookbooks by the 1680s; by the 1720s a homemade sauce of mushrooms was made in imitation of it. "Apicius Redivivus; or, the Cook's Oracle," by William Kitchiner, London, 1817, devotes 7 pages to recipes for different types of catsup (his book has 1 spelling of ketchup, 72 of catsup), including walnut, mushroom, oyster, cockle and mussel, tomata, white (vinegar and anchovies figure in it), cucumber, and pudding catsup. Chambers's Encyclopaedia (1870) lists mushroom, walnut, and tomato ketchup as "the three most esteemed kinds." Tomato ketchup emerged c. 1800 in U.S. and predominated from early 20c. The word ketchup alone, meaning "tomato ketchup," was in use by 1921.

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