c. 1300, pentis, pendize, "a shed or sloping roof projecting from a main wall or the side or end of a building," from Anglo-French pentiz, a shortening of Old French apentis "attached building, appendage," from Medieval Latin appendicium, from Latin appendere "to hang" (see append).
The modern spelling is from c. 1530 by folk etymology influence of French pente "slope," and English house (the meaning at that time was "attached building with a sloping roof or awning"). Originally a simple structure (Middle English homilies describe the stable where Jesus was born as a "penthouse"); meaning "apartment or small house built on the roof of a skyscraper" is attested by 1921, from which time dates its association with luxury.
early 14c., from Old English tigele "roofing shingle," from Proto-Germanic *tegala (Old Saxon tiegla, Old High German ziagal, German ziegel, Dutch tegel, Old Norse tigl), a borrowing from Latin tegula "roof-tile" (source also of Italian tegola, French tuile), from tegere "to roof, to cover," from PIE root *(s)teg- "to cover." Also used in Old English and early Middle English for "brick," before that word came into use.
"arched roof or ceiling," c. 1300, vaute, from Old French voute "arch, vaulting, vaulted roof or chamber," from Vulgar Latin *volta, contraction of *volvita, noun use of fem. of *volvitus, alteration of Latin volutus "bowed, arched," past participle of volvere "to turn, turn around, roll," from PIE root *wel- (3) "to turn, revolve." The -l- appeared in English c. 1400, an etymological insertion in imitation of earlier forms (compare fault (n.), assault (n.)).
latticework structure for climbing plants, 1670s, from Italian pergola, from Latin pergula "school, lecture room; projecting roof; shed, booth; vine arbor," a word of uncertain origin; perhaps from pergere "to come forward."
1787, "pointed or blunt-pointed instrument used in prodding;" 1802, "act of prodding;" from prod (v.). A provincial word; it also meant "long wooden pin used to secure thatch on a roof."
in reference to a house or roof, "to cover with shingles;" 1560s, from shingle (n.). Related: Shingled; shingling. The agent noun shingler, "one who shingles roofs," is attested earlier (mid-15c.; late 13c. as a surname).
"top story under the roof of a house," by 1807, shortened from attic story (1724). Attic in classical architecture meant "a small, square decorative column of the type often used in a low story above a building's main facade," a feature associated with the region around Athens (see Attic). The word then was applied by architects to "a low decorative facade above the main story of a building" (1690s in English), and it then came to mean the space enclosed by such a structure. The modern use is via French attique. "An attic is upright, a garret is in a sloping roof" [Weekley].