Etymology
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ringleader (n.)

"the leader or chief in any enterprise," especially "one who incites others in something illegal, mutinous, etc.," c. 1500, from the Middle English phrase lead the ring "take precedence, be foremost in a group" (mid-14c.), which probably is an extended sense from a meaning "one who leads a ring of dancers." See ring (n.1) + lead (v.1).

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ringer (n.)

 "bell-ringer, one employed to ring church or processional bells," early 15c. (c. 1200 as a surname), agent noun from ring (v.1). An early 13c. text has belle ringestre "nun who rings the convent bell."

In quoits (and by extension, horseshoes), "a throw cast so as to encircle the pin," from 1863, from ring (v.2).

Expression be a dead ringer for "resemble closely" (1891) preserves ringer in the horse-racing slang sense of "a fast horse entered fraudulently in a race in place of a slow one." The verb to ring in reference to this is attested from 1812, possibly from British ring in "substitute, exchange," via ring the changes, "substitute counterfeit money for good," a pun on ring the changes in the sense of "play the regular series of variations in a peal of bells" (1610s). The meaning "an expert" is recorded from 1918, Australian slang, from earlier meaning "man who shears the most sheep per day" (1871).

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rink (n.)

late 14c., "measured ground for a combat, joust, race., etc.," in a Scottish source, and according to OED "Until the latter part of the 19thy cent. only in Sc. use;" probably from Old French renc, reng "row, line," from Frankish or another Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *hringaz "something curved, circle" (from PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend"). But probably much confused in meaning with ring (n.1), also used for "area marked out for a sporting contest."

By 1787 (Burns) as "a sheet of ice measured off for curling;" extended to smooth wooden floors for roller-skating by 1875, to ice surfaces measured for ice hockey by 1896. By 1895 as "building containing a skating rink."

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harangue (n.)

"a public address; a formal, vehement, or passionate address;" also "any formal or pompous speech; a declamation; a tirade," mid-15c., arang, Scottish (in English from c. 1600), from French harangue "a public address" (14c.), from Old Italian aringo "public square, platform; pulpit; arena," from a Germanic source such as Old High German hring "circle" (see ring (n.1)) on the notion of "circular gathering," with an -a- inserted to ease Romanic pronunciation of Germanic hr- (compare hamper (n.1)).

But Watkins and Barnhart suggest a Germanic compound, *harihring "circular gathering, assembly," literally "host-ring, army-ring," with first element *hari- "war-band, host" (see harry (v.)). From the same Germanic "ring" root via Romanic come rank (n.), range (v.), arrange.

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arrange (v.)

late 14c., arengen, "draw up a line of battle," from Old French arengier "put in a row, put in battle order" (12c., Modern French arranger), from a- "to" (see ad-) + rangier "set in a row" (Modern French ranger), from rang "rank," from Frankish *hring or a similar Germanic source. , from Proto-Germanic *hringaz "something curved, circle," the source also of ring (n.1). It is reconstructed to be from a nasalized form of the PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend."

It was a rare word until the meaning generalized to "to place things in order" c. 1780-1800. The sense of "come to an agreement or understanding" is by 1786. The musical sense of "adapt for other instruments or voices" is by 1808. Related: Arranged; arranging. Arranged marriage is attested by 1854.

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*sker- (2)

also *ker-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to turn, bend."

It forms all or part of: arrange; circa; circadian; circle; circuit; circum-; circumcision; circumflex; circumnavigate; circumscribe; circumspect; circumstance; circus; cirque; corona; crepe; crest; crinoline; crisp; crown;  curb; curvature; curve; derange;  flounce (n.) "deep ruffle on the skirt of a dress;" krone; ring (n.1) "circular band;" ranch; range; ranger; rank (n.) "row, line series;" research; recherche; ridge; rink; rucksack; search; shrink.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin curvus "bent, curved," crispus "curly;" Old Church Slavonic kragu "circle;" perhaps Greek kirkos "ring," koronos "curved;" Old English hring "ring, small circlet."

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annulus (n.)
1560s in medical use, "ring-like area or space," from a Medieval Latin misspelling of Latin anulus "little ring, finger ring," a diminutive of anus "ring" (see anus).
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fawney (n.)
"finger-ring," 1781, colloquial, from Irish fainne "ring."
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bagel (n.)

"ring-shaped hard bread roll," 1912 (beigel), from Yiddish beygl, from Middle High German boug- "ring, bracelet," from Old High German boug "a ring," related to Old English beag "ring" (in poetry, an Anglo-Saxon lord was beaggifa "ring-giver"), from Proto-Germanic *baugaz, from PIE root *bheug- "to bend," with derivatives referring to curved objects.

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annular (adj.)

"ring-shaped," 1570s, from French annulaire (16c.) or directly from Medieval Latin annularis "pertaining to a ring," from annulus, misspelled diminutive of Latin anus "ring" (see anus).

An annular eclipse (1727) is one in which the dark body of the moon is smaller than the disk of the sun, so that at the height of it the sun, due to the moon's remoteness from Earth, appears as a ring of light. Related: Annularity.

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