Etymology
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mend (v.)

c. 1200, "to repair" (clothes, a tool, a building), "remove defects" (from something broken, defaced, deranged, or worn), from a shortened form of Old French amender "correct, set right, make better, improve" (see amend). Meaning "to put right, atone for (faults and errors), amend (one's life), repent" is from c. 1300. Intransitive sense of "to grow better, improve" is from late 14c. Related: Mended; mending.

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upholsterer (n.)

"tradesman who finishes or repairs articles of furniture" (1610s), from upholdester (early 15c.; early 14c. as a surname), formed with diminutive (originally fem.) suffix -ster + obsolete Middle English noun upholder "dealer in small goods" (c. 1300), from upholden "to repair, uphold, keep from falling or sinking" (in this case, by stuffing); see uphold (v.).

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renovate (v.)

1520s, "render as good as new (materially), restore to a good condition," a back-formation from renovation or else from Latin renovatus, past participle of renovare "renew, restore." Related: Renovated; renovating.

Earlier verbs were renovelen "renew, repair, rebuild" (early 14c., from Old French renoveler); renoven "become renewed; renew," early 15c., from Old French renover from Latin renovare). Later, renovize was tried as a contraction of renovate and modernize (1933).

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botch (v.)

late 14c., bocchen "to repair," later, "repair clumsily, to spoil by unskillful work" (1520s); a word of unknown origin. Middle English Compendium writes that it is probably the same as bocchen "to swell up or fester; to bulge or project" (though this is attested only from early 15c. and OED denies a connection) which is from Old North French boche, Old French boce, a common Romanic word of uncertain origin. Related: Botched; botching.

As a noun, "a bungled or ill-finished part," it is recorded from c. 1600, perhaps from the verb, but compare Middle English bocche "a boil, a pathological swelling, a tumor" (late 14c.), used especially of glandular swellings from the plague, also figuratively "a corrupt person; a rotten condition" (late 14c.), "a hump on a cripple" (early 14c.), which probably also is from Old North French boche, Old French boce.

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recruit (v.)

1630s, "to strengthen, reinforce, repair by fresh supplies," from French recruter (17c.), from recrute "a levy, a recruit" (see recruit (n.)). The sense of "to enlist new soldiers" is attested from 1650s, hence "gain new supplies" of anything, for any purpose (by 1660s); specifically of student athletes by 1913. Of troop units or classes, "supply with new men, reinforce," 1770s. Related: Recruited; recruiting.

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redress (v.)

mid-14c., redressen, "to correct, reform" (a person; a sense now obsolete); late 14c., "restore, put right" (a wrong, error, offense); "repair; relieve; improve; amend," from Old French redrecier, redresier, "reform, restore, rebuild" (Modern French redresser), from re- "again" (see re-) + drecier "to straighten, arrange" (see dress (v.)). Formerly used in many more senses than currently. Related: Redressed; redressing.

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dentist (n.)

"one whose profession is to clean and extract teeth, repair them when diseased, and replace them when necessary with artificial ones," 1759, from French dentiste, from dent "tooth," from Latin dens (from PIE root *dent- "tooth") + -ist.

Dentist figures it now in our newspapers, and may do well enough for a French puffer, but we fancy Rutter is content with being called a tooth-drawer. [Edinburgh Chronicle, Sept. 15, 1759]

(Tooth-drawer is attested from late 14c.). Related: Dentistic; dentistical.

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store (v.)

mid-13c., "to supply or stock," from Old French estorer "erect, construct, build; restore, repair; furnish, equip, provision," from Latin instaurare "to set up, establish; renew, restore," in Medieval Latin also "to provide, store," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + -staurare, from PIE *stau-ro-, suffixed extended form of root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm" (compare restore). The meaning "to keep in store for future use" (1550s) probably is a back-formation from store (n.). Related: Stored; storing.

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damage (n.)
Origin and meaning of damage

c. 1300, "harm, injury; hurt or loss to person, character, or estate," from Old French damage, domage  "loss caused by injury" (12c., Modern French dommage), from dam "damage," from Latin damnum "loss, hurt, damage" (see damn). In law (as damages) "the value in money of what was lost or withheld, that which is given to repair a cost," from c. 1400. Colloquial sense of "cost, expense" is by 1755. Damage control "action taken to limit the effect of an accident or error" is attested by 1933 in U.S. Navy jargon.

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analemma (n.)

1650s, "projection of the celestial sphere onto the plane of the meridian," later the name of an astronomical instrument to do this (1660s), from Latin analemma name of a type of sundial known in antiquity, a word originally meaning "pedestal of a sundial," hence by extension the sundial itself. This is from Greek analemma "prop, support" of any kind, such as a sling for a broken arm, from analambanein "to take up; restore, repair," from ana "up" (see ana-) + lambanein "to take" (see lemma). As the name of a tabulated scale in the form of a figure 8, showing the sun's position and equation of time throughout the year, from 1832.

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