Etymology
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Sharia (n.)

Islamic religious law, 1855, from Arabic shari'ah "the revealed law," from shar' "revelation."

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ritual (n.)

1640s, "prescribed manner of performing religious worship," from ritual (adj.). From 1650s as "book containing the rites or ordinances of a church," also "the external forms of religious or other devotional exercises," often in that sense somewhat pejorative (mere ritual, forgetful of meaning).

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monasticism (n.)

by 1795, "corporate life of communities under religious vows," from monastic + -ism.

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Babism (n.)
religious and social system founded in 19c. Persia, 1850; see Baha'i.
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autonomous (adj.)

1777, "subject to its own laws" (in translations of Montesquieu); 1780, "pertaining to autonomy;"  from Greek autonomos "having one's own laws," of animals, "feeding or ranging at will," from autos "self" (see auto-) + nomos "law" (from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take"). Compare privilege. Used mostly in metaphysics and politics; see autonomic. Related: Autonomously.

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spiritual (n.)
"African-American religious song," 1866, from spiritual (adj.). Earlier "a spiritual thing" (1660s).
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zakat (n.)
obligatory Islamic tax for religious purposes, 1802, from Persian zakat, etc., from Arabic zakah.
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procession (n.)

late Old English, "set of persons walking or riding formally or with ceremonious solemnity; a religious procession; the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem," from Old French procession "procession" (religious or secular), 11c., and directly from Late Latin processionem (nominative processio) "religious procession," in classical Latin "a marching onward, a going forward, advance," noun of action from past-participle stem of procedere (see proceed). Meaning "act of issuing forth" from anything is late 14c. Related: Processionary.

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imam (n.)
1610s, from Arabic, literally "leader; one who precedes," from amma "to go before, precede." As a high religious title used differently by Sunni and Shiite, but also used of the leader of daily prayers in the mosque and generally for a Muslim prince or religious leader. Related: Imamate.
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revival (n.)

1650s, "act of reviving after decline or discontinuance;" specifically from 1660s as, "the bringing back to the stage of a play which has not been presented for a considerable time;" from revive + -al (2).

The sense of "a general and extraordinary religious awakening in a community" is in Cotton Mather (1702, revival of religion); by 1818 it was used of enthusiastic religious meetings (often by Methodists) meant to inspire revival. In reference to the Victorian popularity of Gothic architecture, by 1850. Revivalist "one who promotes or leads a religious revival" is attested by 1812. Related: Revivalism.

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