Etymology
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Mach 
measure of speed relative to the speed of sound (technically Mach number), 1937, named in honor of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach (1838-1916).
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meanness (n.)

1550s, "weakness," from mean (adj.1) + -ness. Sense of "baseness, poverty, want of dignity or distinction" is from 1650s; that of "sordid illiberality, stinginess" from 1755. The Middle English senses were "fellowship; land held in common," from Old English gemænnes.

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whose (pron.)
genitive of who; from Old English hwæs, genitive of hwa "who," from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns.
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wheedle (v.)
"to influence by flattery," 1660s, of uncertain origin, perhaps connected with Old English wædlian "to beg," from wædl "poverty" [OED], or borrowed by English soldiers in the Thirty Years' War from German wedeln "wag the tail," hence "fawn, flatter" (compare adulation). Related: Wheedled; wheedling.
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Hebrides 
originally Ebudae, Haebudes, of uncertain origin. Apparently a scribal error turned -u- into -ri-. The Norse name, Suðregar, "Southern Islands," is relative to the Orkneys. Related: Hebridean.
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calibrate (v.)
"determine the caliber of," 1839, verb formed from caliber + -ate (2). Also "determine the relative value of" different parts of an arbitrary scale (1869). Related: calibrated; calibrating.
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detrimental (adj.)

1650s, "injurious, hurtful, causing harm or damage;" see detriment + -al (1). In 19c. society slang also a noun, "an ineligible suitor, one who through poverty or unseriousness wastes the time of a young woman seeking marriage" (1831). Related: Detrimentally.

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llama (n.)

wooly-haired South American ruminant, relative of the Old World camels, c. 1600, from Spanish llama (1535), from Quechua (Inca) llama.

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quantity (n.)

early 14c., quantite, "amount, magnitude, the being so much in measure or extent," from Old French quantite, cantite (12c., Modern French quantité) and directly from Latin quantitatem (nominative quantitas) "relative greatness or extent," coined as a loan-translation of Greek posotes (from posos "how great? how much?") from Latin quantus "of what size? how much? how great? what amount?," correlative pronominal adjective (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns).

From late 14c. as "that which has quantity, a concrete quantity;" from 1610s in the concrete sense of "an object regarded as more or less." In prosody and metrics, "the relative time occupied in uttering a vowel or syllable" (distinguishing it as long or short) by 1560s. Latin quantitatem also is the source of Italian quantita, Spanish cantidad, Danish and Swedish kvantitet, German quantitat.

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whither (adv., conj.)
Old English hwider, from Proto-Germanic *hwithre-, from *hwi- "who" (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns) + ending as in hither and thither. Compare Gothic hvadre.
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