Etymology
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Susquehanna 

river through Pennsylvania, named for the Susquehannocks, a native people who lived along the southern reaches of it at the time of European contact, "An Algonquian name for an Iroquoian people; it has been translated as 'people at the falls' or 'roily water people'" [Bright].

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Olbers' paradox 

"if stars are infinitely and uniformly distributed through the sky, their number should counterbalance their faintness and the night sky should be as bright as the day;" named for German astronomer H.W.M. Olbers (1758-1840), who propounded it in 1826.

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Ismailite (n.)

also Ismaelite, 1570s, in reference to a Shi'ite Muslim sect, from Arabic Isma'iliy, the name of the sect that after 765 C.E. followed the Imamship through descendants of Ismail (Arabic for Ishmael), deceased eldest son of Jafar, the sixth Imam, rather than his surviving younger son.

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Chablis (n.)

light, white Burgundy wine, 1660s, named for town of Chablis southeast of Paris. Made only of Chardonnay grapes. The French word chablis (16c.) is literally "deadwood," fallen from a tree through age or brought down by wind, short for bois chablis, from Old French *chableiz.

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Daniel 

proper name, Hebrew, literally "God is my judge;" related to Dan, literally "he who judges," the name given to the tribe descended from Jacob's son of that name in the Old Testament. Consistently in the top 15 names for boys born in the U.S. from 1972 through 2008.

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Danzig 

German name of Polish Gdańsk,city on the Baltic coast of Poland, perhaps from Gdania, an older name for the river that runs through it, or from Gothic Gutisk-anja "end of the (territory of the) Goths." The spelling (attested from 13c.) in the German form of the name perhaps suggests a connection with Dane.

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Anglo-French (n.)

the form of Old French written in England from the Norman Conquest (1066) through the Middle Ages; the administrative and legal language of England 12c.-17c.; the name is attested from 1887 and was popularized, if not coined, by Skeat.

And Frenssh she spak ful faire and fetisly,
After the scole of Stratford-atte-Bowe,
For Frenssh of Parys was to hir unknowe.
[Chaucer]
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Augean (adj.)

"very filthy," 1590s, in reference to Augean stable, the cleansing of which was one of the labors of Hercules, from Greek Augeias, from Augeas, king of Elis, whose proverbially filthy stable contained 3,000 oxen and had gone uncleansed for 30 years. Hercules purified it in one day by turning the river Alpheus through it. The name probably is from auge "splendor, sunlight."

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Columbus 

his name is Latinized from his native Italian Cristoforo Colombo, in Spanish Cristóbal Colón.

America was discovered accidentally by a great seaman who was looking for something else, and most of the exploration for the next fifty years was done in the hope of getting through or around it. [S.E. Morison, "The Oxford History of the United States," 1965]
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Bismarck 

"drink of champagne and stout" (also called a black velvet), 1910, named for the German chancellor (1815-1898), who was said to have been fond of it. The surname is said to be short for Biscofsmark "bishop's boundary." The capital city of North Dakota was named 1873 in honor of the chancellor in recognition of the investment of German bondholders in the railroad through there.

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