mid-14c., "chisel with a concave blade," from Old French gouge "a gouge" (14c.), from Late Latin gubia, alteration of gulbia "hollow beveled chisel," probably from Gaulish (compare Old Irish gulban "prick, prickle," Welsh gylfin "beak"). Meaning "an imposition, a cheat" is from 1845, American English colloquial.
"pertaining to the corpus luteum," 1906, from Latin luteus "yellow," from lutum, the name of a weed used in dying yellow, a word of unknown origin. Luteal phase is attested by 1932.
c. 1600, figurative, "pointed, stinging," of writing, from Latin aculeatus "having a sting; thorny, prickly," also figurative, from aculeus "a sting, prickle," diminutive of acus "a needle" (from PIE root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce"). From 1660s in a literal sense, in zoology, "furnished with a sting;" by 1870 in botany.
"tree of heaven," type of fast-growing weed-tree native to China, brought to Europe and America in 18c.; 1807, Modern Latin, from Amboyna Malay (Austronesian) ailanto, said to mean "tree of the gods." The spelling was altered by influence of Greek anthos "flower" (for which see anther).
"notched on the edge like a saw," 1660s, from Latin serratus "sawlike, notched like a saw," from serra "a saw" (also a name of a type of serrated battle formation), a word of unknown origin. De Vaan suggests a connection to Latin sario 'to hoe, weed," and a PIE source in *sers- "cutting off." Related: Serrated; serrating.
globular fruit of a tree of Indonesia, 1580s, from Malay (Austronesian) durian, from duri "thorn, prickle." So called for its rind.
The durian is deemed by the Siamese the king of fruits. Its smell is offensive to European sense, and I have heard it compared to the stink of carrion and onions mingled. But the exquisite flavour of the fruit renders even its fragrance attractive to its habitués, and it is the only fruit which has ever a considerable money-value in the Siamese market. [Sir John Bowring, "The Kingdom and People of Siam," London, 1857]