1560s, "a handle," from grasp (v.). As "act of grasping" from c. 1600; also "power of grasping." Meaning "power of intellect" is from 1680s.
word-forming element forming nouns meaning "rule or government by," from French -cratie or directly from Medieval Latin -cratia, from Greek -kratia "power, might; rule, sway; power over; a power, authority," from kratos "strength," from PIE *kre-tes- "power, strength," suffixed form of root *kar- "hard." The connective -o- has come to be viewed as part of it. Productive in English from c. 1800.
early 14c., scope, "utensil for bailing out," from Middle Dutch schope "bucket for bailing water," from West Germanic *skopo (source also of Middle Low German schope "ladle"), from Proto-Germanic *skop-, from PIE *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack" (see scabies). Perhaps to English in part from Old French escope, Old North French escoupe. Compare Dutch schop "a spade," related to German Schüppe "a shovel," also "a spade at cards."
The meaning "hand-shovel with a short handle and a deep, hollow receptacle" is from late 15c. The extended sense of "instrument for gouging out a piece" is by 1706. Meaning "action of scooping" is from 1742; that of "amount in a scoop" is from 1832. The colloquial sense of "a big haul," as if in a scoop-net, is by 1893. The journalistic sense of "the securing and publication of exclusive information in advance of a rival" is by 1874, American English, from earlier commercial slang verbal sense of "appropriate so as to exclude competitors" (c. 1850).
"opening in a ship's side at deck level to let the water flow out," early 15c. (implied in scoper-nail "nail used to attach scupper leathers to a ship"), perhaps from Old French escopir "to spit out," because the water seems to spit out of it, or related to Dutch schop "shovel," or from Middle English scope "scoop" (see scoop (n.)).
1650s, "independent power, self-sustained power, self-government" (obsolete), from French autocratie, from Latinized form of Greek autokrateia "absolute rule, rule by oneself," abstract noun from autokratēs "ruling by oneself," from autos "self" (see auto-) + kratia "rule" (see -cracy). The meaning "absolute government, unlimited political power invested in a single person" is recorded from 1855.
late 14c., "cruel or unjust use of power; the government of a tyrant," from Old French tyranie (13c.), from Late Latin tyrannia "tyranny," from Greek tyrannia "rule of a tyrant, absolute power," from tyrannos "master" (see tyrant).