"painful cramping and stiffness in some part of the body (especially of the neck) making motion difficult," early 15c., of uncertain origin; OED says "probably onomatopœic." The Middle English Compendium points to Scandinavian cognates meaning "corner, bend."
1610s, "one who points out or proves," agent noun in Latin form from demonstrate. From 1680s as "one who uses specimens or experiments as a method of teaching;" 1870 as "one who participates in public demonstrations."
"northern or southern end of Earth's axis," late 14c., from Old French pole or directly from Latin polus "end of an axis;" also "the sky, the heavens" (a sense sometimes used in English from 16c.), from Greek polos "pivot, axis of a sphere, the sky," from PIE *kwol- "turn round" (PIE *kw- becomes Greek p- before some vowels), from root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round."
Originally principally in reference to the celestial sphere and the fixed points about which (by the revolution of the Earth) the stars appear to revolve; also sometimes of the terrestrial poles (poles of this world), the two points on the Earth's surface which mark the axis of rotation.
1660s, "partially shaded region around the shadow of an opaque body, a partial shadow," from Modern Latin penumbra "partial shadow outside the complete shadow of an eclipse," coined 1604 by Kepler from Latin pæne "nearly, almost, practically," which is of uncertain origin, + umbra "shadow" (see umbrage). Figurative use is by 1801. Related: Penumbral.
All points within the penumbra are excluded from the view of some part of the luminous body, and are thus partially shaded; while all points within the umbra, or total shadow, are completely excluded from view of the luminous body. [Century Dictionary]
in Greek mythology, the daughter of Minos, king of Crete, abducted by Theseus; from Greek Ariadnē, a name of uncertain etymology, but probably Pre-Greek. Beekes points out that "An IE etymology is improbable for a Cretan goddess."
1530s, "pointing of the psalms" (for the purpose of singing them), from Medieval Latin punctuationem (nominative punctuatio) "a marking with points in writing," noun of action from past-participle stem of punctuare "to mark with points or dots," from Latin punctus, past participle of pungere "to prick, pierce" (from suffixed form of PIE root *peuk- "to prick"). Meaning "system of inserting pauses in written matter" is recorded from 1660s.
The modern system of punctuation was gradually developed after the introduction of printing, primarily through the efforts of Aldus Manutius and his family. ... Long after the use of the present points became established, they were so indiscriminately employed that, if closely followed, they are often a hindrance rather than an aid in reading and understanding the text. There is still much uncertainty and arbitrariness in punctuation, but its chief office is now generally understood to be that of facilitating a clear comprehension of the sense. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
[P]unctuation is cold notation; it is not frustrated speech; it is typographic code. [Robert Bringhurst, "The Elements of Typographic Style," 2004]
"mechanical apparatus for signaling to distant points," 1814, from French sémaphore, etymologically, "a bearer of signals," ultimately from Greek sēma "sign, signal" (see semantic) + phoros "bearer," from pherein "to carry" (from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry"). Related: Semaphoric (1808); semaphorist.
c. 1300, paue, "hand or foot of an animal which has nails or claws" (distinguished from a hoof), from Old French powe, poue, poe "paw, fist," a word of uncertain origin. OED points to Germanic cognates and suggests a Frankish origin for the French word. Barnhart says evidence points to the Germanic word being borrowed from a Gallo-Roman root form *pauta (source also of Provençal pauta, Catalan pota). Century Dictionary says the modern Welsh and Breton words are from English and French. Compare patten. In reference to the human hand, especially if large or coarse, c. 1600.