Etymology
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apraxia (n.)
"loss of the knowledge of the uses of things," 1877, medical Latin, from German apraxie, coined 1871 by German philologist and philosopher Heymann Steinthal (1823-1899), from Greek apraxia "inaction," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + praxis "a doing, action, business" (see praxis) + abstract noun ending -ia.
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pragmaticism (n.)

1865, "officiousness," from pragmatic + -ism. From 1905 as a term in philosophy by American philosopher C.S. Peirce (1839-1914) in reference to the doctrine that abstract concepts must be understood in terms of their practical implications; coined to distinguish his philosophy from pragmatism.

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teleology (n.)
"study of final causes," 1740, from Modern Latin teleologia, coined 1728 by German philosopher Baron Christian von Wolff (1679-1754) from Greek teleos "entire, perfect, complete," genitive of telos "end, goal, result" (see telos), + -logia (see -logy). Related: Teleologist; teleological.
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introjection (n.)
1856, in medicine, from intro- "on the inside, within" + stem abstracted from projection, interjection. In philosophical (1892) and psychoanalytical (1911) uses, from German introjektion; in the former sense the coinage is credited to Swiss-German philosopher Richard Avenarius (1843-1896), in the latter Sándor Ferenczi (1873-1933).
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deconstruction (n.)

1973 as a strategy of critical analysis, in translations from French of the works of philosopher Jacques Derrida (1930-2004). The word was used in English in a literal sense from 1865 of building and architecture, "a taking to pieces," and in late 1860s sometimes as an ironic variant of Reconstruction in the U.S. political sense. Related: Deconstructionism; deconstructionist.

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Socratic (adj.)
1630s (Socratical is from 1580s), "of or pertaining to Greek philosopher Socrates" (469-399 B.C.E.), especially in reference to his method of eliciting truth by question and answer, from Latin Socraticus, from Greek Sokratikos "pertaining to Socrates or his school." His name is Greek Sokrates, literally "having safe might."
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Cartesian (adj.)
pertaining to the works or ideas of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), 1650s, from Cartesius, the Latinized form of his surname (regarded as Des Cartes) + -ian. In addition to his philosophy (based on the fundamental principle cogito, ergo sum), he developed a system of coordinates for determining the positions of points on a plane.
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Seneca 

1610s, from Dutch Sennecas, collective name for the Iroquois tribes of what became upper New York, of uncertain origin, perhaps from a Mahican name for the Oneida or their village. Earlier sinnekens, senakees; the form of the English word probably was influenced by the name of the ancient Roman philosopher. The name sometimes was used by Americans for all the Iroquois.

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self-control (n.)

"restraint of one's desires," 1711, from self- + control (n.). Coined by English moral philosopher Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713). Related: Self-controlled; self-controlling. He also used self-command "that equanimity which enables one in any situation to be reasonable and prudent" (1690s).

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Spencerian (adj.)
1863, pertaining to the penmanship system devised by American penman Platt R. Spencer, the "Father of American Writing" (1800-1864), who c. 1840 began promoting an elliptical cursive style that became the standard U.S. business hand from 1850s to early 20c. It had an assured but joyous elegance lacking in the later Palmer letters. The word also can be a reference to English philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903).
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