Etymology
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Osage 

name of a group of Siouxan tribes originally from Missouri, 1690s, via French, from their self-designation Wazhazhe. The ornamental tree osage orange (Toxylon pomiferum), is attested by that name by 1817; it was originally found in and around their country.

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pip (n.1)

1797, "seed of an apple (or orange)," a shortened form of pipin "seed of a fleshy fruit" (early 14c.), from Old French pepin (13c.), probably from a root *pipp-, expressing smallness (compare Italian pippolo, Spanish pepita "seed, kernel").

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jacinth (n.)
c. 1200, a blue gem (occasionally a red one), from Old French jacinte, iacinte "hyacinth; jacinth," or directly from Late Latin iacintus (see hyacinth). In modern use, a reddish-orange gem. The word is hyacinth with the h- lost and the initial -i- made consonantal.
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Nassau 

capital of the Bahamas, a name attested from 1690s, given in honor of King William III of England (1650-1702), of the House of Orange-Nassau, from the duchy of Nassau in western Germany, named for a village in the Lahn valley, from Old High German nass "wet." Related: Nassauvian.

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Curacao 

West Indian island, Curaçao, discovered 1499 by Alonso de Hojeda, who called it Isla de los Gigantes in reference to the stature of the natives. The modern name probably is a Europeanized version of a lost native word. The liqueur (1813) is made from the dried peel of the Curaçao orange.

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monarch (n.)

mid-15c., monark, "supreme governor for life, a sole or autocratic ruler of a state," from Old French monarche (14c., Modern French monarque) and directly from Late Latin monarcha, from Greek monarkhēs "one who rules alone" (see monarchy). "In modern times generally a hereditary sovereign with more or less limited powers" [Century Dictionary, 1897].

As a type of large orange and black North American butterfly by 1885; on one theory it was so called in honor of King William III of England, who also was Prince of Orange, in reference to the butterfly's color. An older name is milkweed-butterfly (1871). Other old names for it were danais and archippus.

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Peking 

former transliteration of the name of the Chinese capital city, now (in the pinyin system) called Beijing. In the Wade-Giles system it was Peiping; the form Peking pre-dates Wade-Giles and was formed by the old British-run, Hong Kong-based Chinese postal system. Peking duck, "large domestic duck of white plumage and orange beak and legs," is attested from 1880.

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pog (n.)

disc used in playing a game said to have originated in Hawaii and popular in U.S. during the mid-1990s; said to be from the name of a brand of juice-drink made in Hawaii since about 1971, the milk caps from the bottles of it being used to play the game originally. The juice-drink name is said to be an acronym from passionfruit, orange, and guava, the ingredients of the drink.

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cirrhosis (n.)

"chronic inflammation of connective tissue," originally and especially of the liver, 1827, coined in Modern Latin by French physician René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec with -osis and Greek kirros "red-yellow, yellow-brown, tawny," which is of unknown origin. The form is erroneous, presuming Greek *kirrhos. So called for the orange-yellow appearance of the diseased liver. Related: Cirrhotic.

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pomander (n.)

late 15c., pomendambre, "mix of aromatic herbs in a bag or perforated apple-shaped shell, carried or worn around the neck as a preservative against infection," from Old French pomme d'embre (13c.), from pome "apple" (from Latin pomum; see Pomona) + ambre "amber" (see amber). By mid-20c. the word was used for an orange stuck with cloves and hung in a wardrobe or placed in a drawer with clothing.

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