Etymology
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Ismailite (n.)
also Ismaelite, 1570s, in reference to a Shi'ite Muslim sect, from Arabic Isma'iliy, the name of the sect that after 765 C.E. followed the Imamship through descendants of Ismail (Arabic for Ishmael), deceased eldest son of Jafar, the sixth Imam, rather than his surviving younger son.
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termagant (n.)
c. 1500, "violent, overbearing person" (especially of women), from Teruagant, Teruagaunt (c. 1200), name of a fictitious Muslim deity appearing in medieval morality plays, from Old French Tervagant, a proper name in Chanson de Roland (c. 1100), of uncertain origin. As an adjective from 1590s.
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Almohades 
12c. Muslim religious power that ruled Spain and North Africa, founded by Mohammed ibn Abdullah, the name is literally "the Unitarians," short for Arabic al-muwahhidun "they who profess the unity (of God)," so called for their absolutist monotheism.
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imam (n.)
1610s, from Arabic, literally "leader; one who precedes," from amma "to go before, precede." As a high religious title used differently by Sunni and Shiite, but also used of the leader of daily prayers in the mosque and generally for a Muslim prince or religious leader. Related: Imamate.
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caliph (n.)
late 14c., "ruler of a Muslim country," from Old French caliphe (12c., also algalife), from Medieval Latin califa, from Arabic khalifa "successor" (from khalafa "succeed"). Title given to the successor of Muhammad as leader of the community and defender of the faith; originally Abu-Bakr, who succeeded Muhammad in the role of leader of the faithful after the prophet's death.
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Sufi (n.)
member of a Muslim mystical order, 1650s (earlier Sufian, 1580s), from Arabic sufi, literally "man of wool" (i.e., "man wearing woolen garments," as opposed to silk), from suf "wool." According to Klein, so-called from the habit of "putting on the holy garment" (labs-as-suf) to devote oneself to mysticism. Related: Sufic.
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hajj (n.)
also hadj, "the pilgrimage to Mecca," which every free Muslim is bound to make, as a religious duty, from Arabic hajj "pilgrimage," from hajja "he went on a pilgrimage." Related to Hebrew haghagh "he made a pilgrimage, celebrated a feast," hagh "a gathering." One who has made it is a hajji and afterward bears that title as a designation of honor.
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Sunni (n.)
1620s, from Arabic, "adherent of the Sunnah; Muslim who accepts the orthodox tradition as well as the Quran," from Sunna "traditional teachings of Muhammad" (not, like the Quran, committed to writing, but preserved from his lips by his disciples or founded on his actions), literally "way, custom, course, tradition, usage." Related: Sunnite.
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Mecca 

Arabic Makkah, sacred city of Islam, birthplace of Muhammad, which every Muslim must visit at least once. Origins have been proposed in Phoenician maqaq "ruined" or Arabic mahrab "sanctuary." Figurative sense of "any place one holds supremely sacred" (usually with lower-case m-) is in English by 1826. Related: Meccan.

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turban (n.)

1560s, from French turbant (15c.), from Italian turbante (Old Italian tolipante), from Turkish tülbent "gauze, muslin, tulle," from Persian dulband "turban." The change of -l- to -r- may have taken place in Portuguese India and thence been picked up in other European languages. A men's headdress in Muslim lands, it was popular in Europe and America c. 1776-1800 as a ladies' fashion. Related: Turbaned.

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