Etymology
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officer (n.)

early 14c., "one who holds an official post, one entrusted with a responsibility or share of the management of some undertaking" (originally a high office), from Old French oficier "officer, official" (early 14c., Modern French officier), from Medieval Latin officiarius "an officer," from Latin officium "a service, a duty" (see office).

In Middle English also "a servant, a retainer of a great household; an official at court" (late 14c.). From late 14c. as "a military retainer," but the modern military sense of "one who holds a commission in the army or navy" is from 1560s. Applied to petty officials of justice from 16c.; U.S. use in reference to policemen is from 1880s.

The phrase officer and a gentleman in reference to one having the qualities of both is by 1762 and was standard language in British court-martial indictments ("behaviour infamous and scandalous such as is unbecoming the character of an officer and a gentleman").

The words 'officer and gentleman,' though in general to be understood as one single and indivisible term, appear not to be so used here. The misbehaviour, entailing on it the penalty declared by this article, must be such, as I understand it, as to implicate, in the first place, the officer; that is, it must arise in some sort out of his office; and affect incidentally only, the character of the gentleman. It must be such a misconduct, as must necessarily dissever what should ever be indivisible, the consideration of the officer from the gentleman. It must be of that decisively low, humiliating, and debasing kind, as to lay prostrate the honour of the gentleman, in the degradation of the officer.  [Capt. Hough and George Long, "The Practice of Courts-Martial," London, 1825]
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ostensive (adj.)

c. 1600, in logic, "setting forth a general principle by virtue of which a proposition must be true," from Late Latin ostensivus "showing," from Latin ostens-, past-participle stem of ostendere "to show" (see ostensible). Related: Ostensively.

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mantua (n.)

loose gown opening in front worn by women 17c.-18c. (also the name of a type of loose cloak worn by women c. 1850), 1670s, a corruption of French manteau "cloak, mantle," from Old French mantel (see mantle); form influenced in English by Mantua, name of the city in Italy. Mantua-maker (1690s) became by mid-18c. the general term for "dressmaker."

[The mantua-maker's] business is to make Night-Gowns, Mantuas, and Petticoats, Rob de Chambres, &c for the Ladies. She is Sister to the Taylor, and like him, must be a perfect Connoisieur in Dress and Fashions; and like the Stay-Maker, she must keep the Secrets she is entrusted with, as much as a woman can .... She must learn to flatter all Complexions, praise all Shapes, and, in a word, ought to be compleat Mistress of the Art of Dissimulation. It requires a vast Stock of Patience to bear the Tempers of most of their Customers, and no small Share of Ingenuity to execute their innumerable Whims. [R. Campbell, "The London Tradesman," 1747]
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pragmaticism (n.)

1865, "officiousness," from pragmatic + -ism. From 1905 as a term in philosophy by American philosopher C.S. Peirce (1839-1914) in reference to the doctrine that abstract concepts must be understood in terms of their practical implications; coined to distinguish his philosophy from pragmatism.

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off-limits (adj.)

"forbidden, outside the limits within which a particular group or person must remain," by 1881, U.S. military academies jargon, from off (prep.) + limit (n.). Earlier (1857) it was applied to cadets, etc., who were in violation of the limitations on their movement and behavior.

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perfecta (n.)

method of betting in which the bettor must pick the first- and second-place finishers in correct order, 1971, from American Spanish perfecta, shortened from quiniela perfecta "perfect quiniela," a bet in horseracing (see quinella); for perfecta, see perfect (adj.).

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bibliomaniac (n.)

"one mad for books, an enthusiastic collector of rare or unusual books," 1811; see bibliomania. Earlier was bibliomane (1777), from French.

A bibliomaniac must be carefully distinguished from a bibliophile. The latter has not yet freed himself from the idea that books are meant to be read. [Walsh]
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communique (n.)

"an official announcement or report," 1852, from French communiqué, originally past participle of communiquer "to communicate" (14c.), from Latin communicare "impart, inform" (see communication). Originally the heading of official statements from the French government. Fowler says better, if it must be used in English, to print it with the accent.

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hamartia (n.)
"tragic flaw," Greek, literally "fault, failure, guilt, sin" from hamartanein "to fail of one's purpose; to err, sin," originally "to miss the mark," from PIE *hemert- "to miss, fail." "The aspiration must be analogical. The word has no known cognates, but the reconstructed root looks perfectly IE" [Robert Beekes, "Etymological Dictionary of Greek"].
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upstage (adv.)
1855 in theatrical jargon, "to the rear of the stage," from up (adv.) + stage (n.). From 1901 as an adjective, 1916 as a noun. The notion in the verb (1921) is of drawing attention to oneself (and away from a fellow actor) by moving upstage, so that the other actor must face away from the audience. Related: Upstaged; upstaging.
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