Etymology
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raga (n.)

in Indian music, a melodic framework for improvised melodies, 1788, from Sanskrit raga-s "harmony, melody, mode in music," literally "color, mood," related to rajyati "it is dyed," from PIE *reg- (3) "to dye" (source also of Greek rhegos "blanket, rug").

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hemidemisemiquaver (n.)

"sixty-fourth note" in music, 1846, from hemi- + demi- + semi- + quaver (n.).

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classical (adj.)

1590s, "of the highest rank" (originally in literature), from classic + -al (1). Classical music (1836) was defined originally against romantic music.

[I]n general, as now used, the term classical includes the composers active in instrumental music from somewhere about 1700 to say 1830. Hence the list includes among the great names those of Bach, his sons, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Clementi, Dussek, Pleyel, Cramer, etc. The next step beyond the term classical is "modern romantic," the composers of which school may be taken to include all the writers for pianoforte from about 1829 (when Mendelssohn published the first "Songs without Words") down to the present. The term romantic in this sense means strongly marked, extraordinary, intending to tell stories and the like. ["Music, Its Ideals and Methods," W.S.B. Mathews, 1897]

But already by 1880s it was acknowledged the term had a double sense: Music that had withstood the test of time, as well as music of a style contrasted to "romantic." Later (early 20c.) it was contrasted to jazz (in this sense more often with reference to the orchestras than to the music itself). Still later it stood in contrast to popular music generally (mid-20c.). Classical history is the history of ancient Greece and Rome; ancient history is the history of mankind from the earliest reliable records to the fall of Rome (476 C.E.). Related: Classically.

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headbanger (n.)
"devotee of heavy metal music," 1984, from head (n.) + agent noun from bang (v.).
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flat (v.)
c. 1600, "to lay flat;" 1670s in music, from flat (adj.). Related: Flatted; flatting.
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soul (n.2)
"instinctive quality felt by black persons as an attribute," 1946, jazz slang, from soul (n.1). Also from this sense are soul brother (1957), soul sister (1967), soul food (1957), etc. Soul music, essentially gospel music with "girl," etc., in place of "Jesus," first attested 1961; William James used the term in 1900, in a spiritual/romantic sense, but in reference to inner music.
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harmonic (adj.)

1560s, "relating to music," from Latin harmonicus, from Greek harmonikos "harmonic, musical, skilled in music," from harmonia (see harmony). From 1660s as "tuneful, harmonious; relating to harmony" (earlier as armonical "tuneful, harmonious," c. 1500). The noun, short for harmonic tone, is recorded from 1777. Related: Harmonically.

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mathematical (adj.)

"of, pertaining to, or of the nature of mathematics," early 15c., from Medieval Latin mathematicus "of or belonging to mathematics," from Latin mathematica (see mathematic) + -al (1). Also, by 1765, "pertaining to the quadrivium," comprising arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. It also could include optics. Related: Mathematically.

The four mathematical arts are arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy; these anciently were termed the quadrivium, or fourfold way of knowledge. [Sir John Hawkins, "A General History of the Science and Practice of Music," Sir John Hawkins, 1776]
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jazzetry (n.)
"poetry reading accompanied by jazz music," 1959, from jazz (n.) + poetry.
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mute (v.)

in music, "deaden the sound of," 1861, from mute (n.). Related: Muted; muting.

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