Etymology
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in facie curiae 
"before the court," legal Latin, from ablative of Latin facies "form, face" (see face (n.)). + genitive of curia "court" (see curia).
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mens sana in corpore sano 

c. 1600, Latin, literally "a sound mind in a sound body," a line found in Juvenal, "Satires," x.356.

Mens sana in corpore sano is a contradiction in terms, the fantasy of a Mr. Have-your-cake-and-eat-it. No sane man can afford to dispense with debilitating pleasures; no ascetic can be considered reliably sane. Hitler was the archetype of the abstemious man. When the other krauts saw him drink water in the Beer Hall they should have known he was not to be trusted. [A.J. Liebling, "Between Meals," 1962]
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magna mater 

a fertility goddess, 1728, Latin, literally "great mother;" see magnate + mother (n.1).

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Alma Mater (n.)

late 14c., Latin, literally "nurturing mother," a title given by Romans to certain goddesses, especially Ceres and Cybele, from alma, fem. of almus "nourishing," from alere "to nourish, rear, support, maintain" (from PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish") + māter "mother" (see mother (n.1)). In sense of "one's university or school," attested from 1710.

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dura mater (n.)

"tough outer membrane surrounding the brain and the spinal cord," c. 1400, from Medieval Latin dura mater cerebri, literally "hard mother of the brain," a loan-translation of Arabic umm al-dimagh as-safiqa, literally "thick mother of the brain." "In Arabic, the words 'father,' 'mother,' and 'son' are often used to denote relationships between things" [Klein].

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de jure 

Latin, literally "of law," thus "legitimate, lawful, by right of law, according to law." Jure is ablative of ius "law" (see de +  just (adj.)).

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lex talionis (n.)
1590s, legal Latin, "law of retaliation," an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, from lex "law" (see legal) + talionis, genitive of talio "exaction of payment in kind" (see retaliation). Not related to talon. Other legal Latin phrases include lex domicilii "the law of the place where the person resides," lex fori "law of the place in which an action is brought."
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Stabat Mater 
Latin Stabat Mater dolorosa "Stood the Mother (of Jesus) full of sorrow," opening words of a sequence composed 13c. by Jacobus de Benedictis.
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Tuatha de Danann 
1680s, from Irish Tuatha dé Danann, literally "the people of Danann," from plural of tuath (see Teutonic) + Danann, apparently originally an oblique case of Danu, mother of the gods.
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birthday suit (n.)
first attested 1730s, but probably much older. The notion is the suit of clothes one was born in, i.e., no clothes at all. Compare Middle English mother naked "naked as the day one was born;" Middle Dutch moeder naect, German mutternackt.
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