Etymology
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maternal (adj.)

late 15c., "of or pertaining to a mother or motherhood; characteristic of mothers," from Old French maternel (14c.), from Vulgar Latin *maternalis, from Latin māternus "maternal, of a mother," from māter "mother" (see mother (n.1)). From 1650s as "inherited or derived from a mother;" by 1784 as "motherly, having the instincts of a mother." Related: Maternally.

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metronymic (n.)

by 1841, "a name derived from the name of a mother or maternal ancestor;" by 1844 as an adjective, from Late Greek metrōnymikos "named for one's mother," from mētēr (genitive mētros) "mother" (see mother (n.1)) + onyma "name" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). Related: Metronymically (1822).

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Mother Goose 
probably a translation of mid-17c. French contes de ma mère l'oye, which meant "fairy tales." The phrase appeared on the frontispiece of Charles Perrault's 1697 collection of eight fairy tales ("Contes du Temps Passé"), which was translated in English 1729 as "Mother Goose's Tales", and a very popular collection of traditional nursery rhymes published by John Newbery c. 1765 was called "Mother Goose's Melody." Her own biographical story is no earlier than 1806.
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Alma Mater (n.)

late 14c., Latin, literally "nurturing mother," a title given by Romans to certain goddesses, especially Ceres and Cybele, from alma, fem. of almus "nourishing," from alere "to nourish, rear, support, maintain" (from PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish") + māter "mother" (see mother (n.1)). In sense of "one's university or school," attested from 1710.

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Mother Hubbard 

in reference to a kind of loose, full gown worn by women, 1878, from Old Mother Hubbard, nursery rhyme, which was printed 1805, written by Sarah Catherine Martin (1768-1826) but based on earlier material of unknown origin. The name is attested from 1591.

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earth-mother (n.)
1870, folkloric spirit of the earth, conceived as sensual, maternal; often a translation of German erdmutter. Earth-goddess is from 1837.
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matrimony (n.)

c. 1300, matrimoine, "the married state, the relation of husband and wife, wedlock; the sacrament of marriage," from Old French matremoine "matrimony, marriage" and directly from Latin mātrimōnium "wedlock, marriage" (in plural "wives"), from mātrem (nominative māter) "mother" (see mother (n.1)) + -mōnium, suffix signifying "action, state, condition."

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maternity (n.)

1610s, "quality or condition of being a mother," from French maternité "motherhood" (15c.), from Medieval Latin maternitatem (nominative maternitas) "motherhood," from Latin māternus "of a mother," from māter "mother" (see mother (n.1)). Used from 1893 as a quasi-adjective in reference to garments designed for pregnant women. Maternity leave in reference to working women is attested by 1942.

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stepmother (n.)

also step-mother, Old English steopmodor; see step- + mother (n.1). Associated with parsimony and cruelty at least since Middle English.

Is Moder was ded, his fader nam an oþur wijf. ... seint Edward heo louede luyte, for stepmoder is selde guod. ["South English Legendary," c. 1300]
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matricide (n.)

1590s, "act of killing one's mother;" 1630s, "one who kills his mother;" from French matricide, from Latin mātricida "mother-killer," and mātricidium "mother-killing," from combining form of māter "mother" (see mother (n.1)) + -cida "killer," and -cidium "a killing," from caedere "to slay" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike"). Related: Matricidal (adj.). Old English had moðorslaga "a matricide, a mother-slayer."

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