Etymology
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windmill (n.)
c. 1300, from wind (n.1) + mill (n.). Similar formation in German Windmühle, Dutch windmolen, French moulin à vent. Verb meaning "to swing the arms wildly" is recorded from 1888. Related: Windmilled; windmilling.
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treadmill (n.)

invented (and named) 1822; originally an instrument of prison discipline; from tread (v.) + mill (n.1). Treadwheel as a similar method of driving machinery is from 1570s.

As a corrective punishment, the discipline of the stepping mill has had a most salutary effect upon the prisoners, and is not likely to be easily forgotten, while it is an occupation which by no means interferes with, nor is calculated to lessen the value of, those branches of prison regulation which provide for the moral and religious improvement of the criminal. ["Description of the Tread Mill Invented by Mr. William Cubitt of Ipswich for the Employment of Prisoners," London, 1822]

By later generations regarded as a path to physical fitness.

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*mele- 

*melə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to crush, grind," with derivatives referring to ground or crumbling substances and crushing or grinding instruments.

It forms all or part of: amyl; amyloid; blintz; emmer; emolument; immolate; maelstrom; mall; malleable; malleolus; mallet; malleus; maul; meal (n.2) "edible ground grain;" mill (n.1) "building fitted to grind grain;" millet; mola; molar (n.); mold (n.3) "loose earth;" molder; ormolu; pall-mall.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite mallanzi "they grind;" Armenian malem "I crush, bruise;" Greek mylos "millstone," myle "mill;" Latin molere "to grind," mola "millstone, mill," milium "millet;" Old English melu "meal, flour;" Albanian miel "meal, flour;" Old Church Slavonic meljo, Lithuanian malu, malti "to grind;" Old Church Slavonic mlatu, Russian molotu "hammer."

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quern (n.)

"small mill for grinding" (grain, pepper, mustard, etc.),  Middle English querne, from Old English cweorn "hand-mill, mill," from PIE *gwere-na- "millstone" (source also of Old Norse kvern, Old Frisian quern, Old High German quirn, Gothic quirnus; Sanskrit grava "crushing stone;" Lithuanian girna "millstone," girnos "hand mills;" Old Church Slavonic zrunuvi "mills;" Welsh brevan "hand mill"), suffixed form of root *gwere- (1) "heavy."

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fulling (n.)
early 15c. (in fulling mill), verbal noun from full (v.).
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raison d'etre (n.)

"excuse for being," 1864, first recorded in letter of J.S. Mill, from French raison d'être, literally "rational grounds for existence."

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self-reliance (n.)

"reliance on one's own power and abilities," 1833 (J.S. Mill), from self- + reliance. Self-dependence, "reliance on oneself, with a feeling of independence," is attested by 1759; self-dependent is from 1670s.

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amyl (n.)
hydrocarbon radical, 1850 (amyle), from Latin amylum "starch," from Greek amylon "fine meal, starch," noun use of neuter of adjective amylos "not ground at the mill," that is, "ground by hand," from a- "not" (see a- (3)) + myle "mill" (from PIE root *mele- "to crush, grind"). So called because first obtained from the distilled spirits of potato or grain starch (though it also is obtained from other sources). In 16c. English amyl meant "starch, fine flour."
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pedantocracy (n.)

"supremacy or power of bookish theorists," 1842, from pedant + -cracy "rule or government by," with connecting vowel. Coined (in French) by Mill in a letter to Comte.

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connotative (adj.)

1610s, "pertaining to connotation," from Medieval Latin connotativus, from past-participle stem of connotare "to signify in addition to the main meaning;" see connotation. Meaning "implying an attribute while denoting a subject" is from 1829 (J.S. Mill).

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