Etymology
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clout (n.)

Old English clut "lump of something," also "patch of cloth put over a hole to mend it," from Proto-Germanic *klutaz (source also of Old Norse klute "kerchief," Danish klud "rag, tatter," Frisian klut "lump," Dutch kluit "clod, lump"); perhaps related to clot (v.).

In later use "a handkerchief," also "a woman's sanitary napkin." Sense of "a blow" is from early 14c., from the verb. Slang sense of "personal influence" (especially in politics) is by 1946, American English, on the notion of "punch, force."

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patch (n.1)

"piece of cloth used to mend another material," late 14c., pacche, of obscure origin, perhaps a variant of pece, pieche, from Old North French pieche (see piece (n.1)), or from an unrecorded Old English word (Old English had claðflyhte for "a patch").

Meaning "portion of any surface different from what is around it" is from 1590s. That of "small piece of ground," especially one under cultivation, is from 1570s. As "small piece of plaster used on the face," to cover blemishes or enhance beauty is from 1590s. Phrase not a patch on "nowhere near as good as" is from 1860.

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mendicancy (n.)

"state or condition of beggary, act of begging," 1758, from mendicant + abstract noun suffix -cy. Also in this sense was mendicity (c. 1400), from Old French mendicité "begging," from Latin mendicitatem (nominative mendicitas) "beggary, mendicity."

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mendicant (n.)

"a beggar, one who lives by asking alms," late 14c., from Latin mendicantem (nominative mendicans), noun use of present participle of mendicare "to beg, ask alms" (see mendicant (adj.)).

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Mendelism (n.)

theory of inheritance of characteristic by means of (what now are called) genes, 1903, in reference to the work of Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884), Austrian biologist who enunciated the laws of heredity. Related: Mendelian.

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*mendh- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to learn." It forms all or part of: chrestomathy; mathematic; mathematical; mathematics; opsimathy; polymath.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek menthere "to care," manthanein "to learn," mathēma "science, knowledge, mathematical knowledge;" Lithuanian mandras "wide-awake;" Old Church Slavonic madru "wise, sage;" Gothic mundonsis "to look at," German munter "awake, lively."

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mendacity (n.)

"tendency or disposition to lie, habitual lying," also "a falsehood, a lie," 1640s, from French mendacité and directly from Late Latin mendacitas "falsehood, mendacity," from Latin mendax "lying; a liar" (see mendacious).

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mendelevium (n.)

artificial trans-uranic element, 1955, Modern Latin, in honor of Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907). With metallic element ending -ium.

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mendicity (n.)

"beggary," c. 1400, mendicite, from Old French mendicite "begging," from Latin mendicitatem (nominative mendicitas) "beggary" (see mendicant (adj.) ).

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Mendoza line (n.)

in baseball, "a low batting average," (somewhere around .200) with the suggestion that any player hitting below it ought to feel a bit ashamed, by 1984, said to have been in humorous use in baseball clubhouses c. 1979, from the name of former Pirate, Mariner, and Ranger shortstop Mario Mendoza, who was noted for his defense but whose .215 lifetime batting average routinely left him at the bottom of weekly batting averages. The surname is Basque.

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