Etymology
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play-day (n.)

"day given to pastime or diversion, a day exempt from work," c. 1600, from play (v.) + day.

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quarter day (n.)

mid-15c., "day that begins a quarter of the year," designated as days when rents were paid and contracts and leases began or expired, from quarter (n.1). They were, in England, Lady day (March 25), Midsummer day (June 24), Michaelmas day (Sept. 29), and Christmas day (Dec. 25); in Scotland, keeping closer to the pre-Christian Celtic calendar, they were Candlemas (Feb. 2), Whitsunday (May 15), Lammas (Aug. 1), and Martinmas (Nov. 11). Quarter in the sense "period of three months; one of the four divisions of a year" is recorded from late 14c. Related: Quarter days.

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day care (n.)

also daycare, day-care, "care and supervision of young children during the day," especially on behalf of working parents, by 1943, American English, from day + care (n.). Early references are to care for children of women working national defense industry jobs.

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present-day (adj.)

"current, contemporary, now in existence," 1870, from present (adj.) + day.

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Earth Day 

as an annual ecological awareness event on April 22, from 1970; the idea for it and the name date from 1969.

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Boxing Day (n.)
1809, "first weekday after Christmas," on which by an English custom postmen, employees, and others can expect to receive a Christmas present; originally in reference to the custom of distributing the contents of the Christmas box, which was placed in the church for charity collections. See box (n.1). The custom is older than the phrase.
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devil-may-care (adj.)

"reckless, careless," 1828 (but suggested in other forms by 1793). As an oath or expression by 1815.

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April fool (n.)
1680s; April-gowk (from Old Norse gaukr "a cuckoo") is a northern variant. April Fool's Day customs of sending people on false errands seem to have come to England from France late 17c.; originally All Fool's Day (1712). In Cumberland, Westmorland and northern parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire, however, May 1 was the day for hoaxing, and the fool was a May gosling. That custom was first attested 1791.
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Walpurgis night 

1820, from German Walpurgisnacht, witches' revel, especially on the Brocken in the Harz Mountains, on May-day eve, literally "the night of (St.) Walpurgis," from Walburga, English abbess who migrated to Heidenheim, Germany, and died there c. 780; May 1 being the day of the removal of her bones from Heidenheim to Eichstädt.

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ides (n.)
"middle day of a Roman month," early 14c., from Old French ides (12c.), from Latin idus (plural) "the ides," a word perhaps of Etruscan origin. In the Roman calendar the eighth day after the nones, corresponding to the 15th of March, May, July, and October; the 13th of other months. "Debts and interest were often payable on the ides" [Lewis].
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