Etymology
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Madeira 

group of volcanic islands off the northwest coast of Africa, from Portuguese madeira "wood," because the main island formerly was thickly wooded, from Latin materia "wood, matter" (see matter (n.)). As a type of fine wine of the sherry class, 1540s, from the island, where it was produced.

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concretion (n.)

c. 1600, "act of growing together or uniting in one mass;" 1640s, "mass of solid matter formed by growing together or conglomeration," from French concrétion (16c.) or directly from Latin concretionem (nominative concretio) "a compacting, uniting, condensing; materiality, matter," from concretus "condensed, congealed" (see concrete (adj.) ). Related: Concretional; concretionary.

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commercialization (n.)

"operation of making (something) a matter of profit above other considerations," 1885, from commercialize + noun ending -ation.

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elimination (n.)
c. 1600, "a casting out," noun of action from eliminate. Meaning "expulsion of waste matter" is from 1855.
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plasticity (n.)

"capability of being molded or formed; property of giving form or shape to matter," 1768, from plastic (adj.) + -ity.

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lake (n.2)
"deep red coloring matter," 1610s, from French laque (15c., see lac), from which it was obtained.
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long (n.)
in long and short of it "the sum of the matter in a few words," c. 1500, from long (adj.).
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protoplanet (n.)

"large, diffuse cloud of matter in the orbit of a young star, regarded as the preliminary state of a planet," 1949, from proto- + planet.

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optimistic (adj.)

"of, pertaining to, or characterized by optimism; disposed to take the most hopeful view of a matter," 1845, from optimist + -ic. Related: Optimistical (1809); optimistically.

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toss-up (n.)
"even matter," 1809, from earlier sense of "a flipping of a coin to arrive at a decision" (c. 1700), from verbal phrase, from toss (v.) + up (adv.).
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