Etymology
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fair (n.)
"a stated market in a town or city; a regular meeting to buy, sell, or trade," early 14c., from Anglo-French feyre (late 13c.), from Old French feire, faire "fair, market; feast day," from Vulgar Latin *feria "holiday, market fair," from Latin feriae "religious festivals, holidays," related to festus "solemn, festive, joyous" (see feast (n.)).
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billingsgate (n.)

1670s, coarse, abusive language of the sort once used by women in the Billingsgate market on the River Thames below London Bridge.

Billingsgate is the market where the fishwomen assemble to purchase fish; and where, in their dealings and disputes they are somewhat apt to leave decency and good manners a little on the left hand. [Grose, "A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1788]

The place name is Old English Billingesgate, "gate of (a man called) Billing;" the "gate" probably being a gap in the Roman river wall. The market is from mid-13c.; it was not exclusively a fish market until late 17c.

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staple (n.2)

"principal article grown or made in a country or district," early 15c., "official market for some class of merchandise," from Anglo-French estaple (14c.), Old French estaple "counter, stall; regulated market, depot," from a Germanic source akin to Middle Low German stapol, Middle Dutch stapel "market," literally "pillar, foundation," from the same source as staple (n.1), the notion perhaps being of market stalls behind pillars of an arcade, or else of a raised platform where the king's deputies administered judgment.

The sense of "principal article grown or made in a place" is 1610s, short for staple ware "wares and goods from a market" (early 15c.). Meaning "principle element or ingredient in anything" is from 1826. Meaning "fiber of any material used for spinning" is late 15c., of uncertain origin, and perhaps an unrelated word.

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Smithfield 
place in London, celebrated at least since 17c. as a market for cattle and horses, later the central meat market. In various colloquial expressions. Originally Smethefield, from Old English smethe "smooth" (see smooth (adj.)). Smithfield ham (1908, American English) is from a town of that name in Virginia.
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gavage (n.)
"force-feeding of poultry for market," 1889, from French gavage, from gaver "to stuff" (17c.; see gavotte).
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seller (n.)

"merchant, vendor," c. 1200, agent noun from sell (v.). Seller's market, in which demand predominates, is recorded by 1934.

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grazier (n.)
"one who pastures cattle for market," late 13c. as a surname, agent noun from graze (v.1).
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slaughter (v.)
1530s, "butcher an animal for market," from slaughter (n.). Meaning "slay wantonly, ruthlessly, or in great numbers" is from 1580s. Related: Slaughtered; slaughtering.
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drover (n.)

"one who drives cattle or sheep to market," early 15c. (late 13c. as a surname), agent noun from drove (n.).

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bullish (adj.)
1560s, "of the nature of a bull," from bull (n.1) + -ish; stock market sense "tending to advance in price" is from 1882. Related: Bullishly; bullishness.
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