Etymology
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prostatitis (n.)

"inflammation of the prostate gland," 1839 (by 1834 in German), from prostate + -itis "inflammation."

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thyroid (adj.)

1690s (in reference to both the cartilage and the gland), from Greek thyreoeides "shield-shaped" (in khondrosthyreoeides "shield-shaped cartilage," used by Galen to describe the "Adam's apple" in the throat), from thyreos "oblong, door-shaped shield" (from thyra "door," from PIE root *dhwer- "door, doorway") + -eides "form, shape" (see -oid). The noun, short for thyroid gland, is recorded from 1849.

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mastitis (n.)

"inflammation of the mammary gland," 1842, medical Latin, from masto- "female breast" + -itis "inflammation."

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adeno- 

scientific word-forming element meaning "gland," from Greek adēn "gland," which is perhaps from a suffixed form of PIE root *engw- "groin; internal organ" (source also of Latin inguen "groin"), but Beekes rejects all cognates and calls it isolated.

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prostaglandin (n.)

substance found in seminal fluid, 1936, from German (1935); see prostate + gland + chemical suffix -in (2).

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adrenal (adj.)

"of or near the kidneys," 1866, Modern Latin, from ad- "to, near" + renalis "of the kidneys," from Latin renes "kidneys" (see renal). Adrenal gland is from 1875.

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glans (n.)

head of the penis or clitoris, 1640s, from Latin glans "acorn," also used of acorn-shaped things (see gland).

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pineal (adj.)

1680s, in reference to the gland in the brain, from French pinéal, literally "like a pine cone," from Latin pinea "pine cone," from pinus "pine tree" (see pine (n.)).

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papilla (n.)

plural papillae, 1690s, "a nipple of a mammary gland," from Latin papilla "nipple," diminutive of papula "swelling" (see pap (n.2)). Meaning "nipple-like protuberance" attested from 1713.

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masculine (adj.)

mid-14c., "belonging to the male grammatical gender;" late 14c., "of men, of male sex," from Old French masculin "of the male sex" (12c.), from Latin masculinus "male, of masculine gender," from masculus "male, masculine; worthy of a man," diminutive of mas (genitive maris) "male person, male," a word of unknown origin. The diminutive form might be by pairing association with femininus (see feminine). Meaning "having the appropriate qualities of the male sex, physically or mentally: Manly, virile, powerful" is attested by 1620s. As a noun, "masculine gender," from c. 1500.

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