Etymology
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forecast (n.)
early 15c., "forethought, prudence," probably from forecast (v.). Meaning "conjectured estimate of a future course" is from 1670s. A Middle English word for weather forecasting (also divination by reading signs in the clouds or weather) was aeromancy (late 14c.).
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sky (n.)

c. 1200, "a cloud," from Old Norse sky "cloud," from Proto-Germanic *skeujam "cloud, cloud cover" (source also of Old English sceo, Old Saxon scio "cloud, region of the clouds, sky;" Old High German scuwo, Old English scua, Old Norse skuggi "shadow;" Gothic skuggwa "mirror"), from PIE root *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal."

Meaning "upper regions of the air" is attested from c. 1300; replaced native heofon in this sense (see heaven). In Middle English, the word can still mean both "cloud" and "heaven," as still in the skies, originally "the clouds." Sky-high is from 1812; phrase the sky's the limit is attested from 1908. Sky-dive first recorded 1965; sky-writing is from 1922.

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cumulus (n.)

1650s, "a heap," from Latin cumulus "a heap, pile, mass, surplus," from PIE *ku-m-olo-, suffixed shortened form of root *keue- "to swell." Meteorological use for "rounded mass of clouds, snowy white at the top with a darker, horizontal base" is attested by 1803.

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obnubilate (v.)

"to darken, cloud, overcloud," 1580s, from Latin obnibulatus, past participle of obnubilare "to cover with clouds or fog," from ob "in front of, against" (see ob-) + verb from Latin nubes "cloud," from PIE *sneudh- "fog" (see nuance). Related: Obnubilated; obnubilating. Middle English had obnubilous "obscure, indistinct" (early 15c.).

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rack (n.3)

[clouds driven before the wind], c. 1300, rak, "movement, rapid movement," also "rush of wind, collision, crash," originally a northern word, possibly from Old English racu "cloud, storm" (or an unrecorded Scandinavian cognate of it), reinforced by Old Norse rek, *rak "wreckage, jetsam," or Old English wræc "something driven," both of which would be from Proto-Germanic *wrakaz, from PIE root *wreg- "to push, shove, drive" (see urge (v.)).

From late 14c. as "rain cloud." Often confused with wrack (n.) "destruction," especially in the phrase rack and ruin (1590s), which perhaps is encouraged in that case by the visual alliteration. Rack is "fragments of raggy clouds;" wrack is, in its secondary sense, "seaweed cast up on shore." Both probably come, ultimately, from the same PIE root, as does wreak.

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Gabriel 
masc. proper name, also name of an Old Testament angel, from Hebrew Gabhri el, literally "man of God," from gebher "man" + El "God." First element is from base of verb gabhar "was strong" (compare Arabic jabr "strong, young man;" jabbar "tyrant"). Gabriel's hounds (17c.) was a folk explanation for the cacophony of wild geese flying over, hidden by clouds or night.
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drizzle (v.)

1540s, transitive, "shed in small drops;" 1560s, intransitive, "fall in very fine particles, as water from the clouds," of uncertain origin. Perhaps it is an alteration of drysning "a falling of dew" (c. 1400), from Old English -drysnian, which is related to dreosan "to fall" (see dreary). Or perhaps it is a frequentative of Middle English dresen "to fall," from Old English dreosan. Related: Drizzled; drizzling.

As a noun, "a light rain, mist," from 1550s.

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disperse (v.)

late 14c., dispersen, "to scatter, separate and send off or drive in different directions," from Latin dispersus, past participle of dispergere "to scatter," from dis- "apart, in every direction" (see dis-) + spargere "to scatter" (see sparse). The Latin word is glossed in Old English by tostregdan. Intransitive sense of "to separate and move apart in different directions without regularity" is from 1520s. Of clouds, fears, etc., "to dissipate," 1560s (transitive), 1590s (intransitive). Related: Dispersed; dispersing.

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cloud (n.)

Old English clud "mass of rock, hill," related to clod.

The modern sense "rain-cloud, mass of evaporated water visible and suspended in the sky" is a metaphoric extension that begins to appear c. 1300 in southern texts, based on similarity of cumulus clouds and rock masses. The usual Old English word for "cloud" was weolcan (see welkin). In Middle English, skie also originally meant "cloud." The last entry for cloud in the original rock mass sense in Middle English Compendium is from c. 1475.

The four fundamental types of cloud classification (cirrus, cumulus, stratus, nimbus) were proposed by British amateur meteorologist Luke Howard (1772-1864) in 1802.

Meaning "cloud-like mass of smoke or dust" is from late 14c. Figuratively, as something that obscures, darkens, threatens, or casts a shadow, from c. 1300; hence under a cloud (c. 1500). In the clouds "removed from earthly things; obscure, fanciful, unreal" is from 1640s. Cloud-compeller translates (poetically) Greek nephelegereta, a Homeric epithet of Zeus.

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swart (adj.)

Old English sweart "black, dark," of night, clouds, also figurative, "wicked, infamous," from Proto-Germanic *swarta- (source also of Old Frisian, Old Saxon, and Middle Dutch swart, Dutch zwart, Old Norse svartr, German schwarz, Gothic swarts "dark-colored, black"), from PIE root *swordo- "dirty, dark, black" (source of sordid). The true Germanic word, surviving in the Continental languages but displaced in English by black. Of skin color of persons from late 14c. Related: Swartest.

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