Etymology
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silphium (n.)
plant genus, 1771, from Latin, from Greek Silphion, name of a North African Mediterranean plant whose identity has been lost, the gum or juice of which was prized by the ancients as a condiment and a medicine. Probably of African origin.
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scuffy (adj.)

"lacking or having lost the original finish and freshness," hence "shabby-looking," 1858; see scuff (v.) + -y (2). Past-participle adjective scuffed in the sense of "worn, shabby" is by 1819. Related: Scuffiness.

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widower (n.)
"man who has lost his wife by death," late 14c., extended from widow (n.). The Old English masc. form was widewa. Similar formation in Middle Dutch weduwer, German Wittwer. Related: Widowerhood.
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bituminous (adj.)

"of the nature of or resembling asphalt," 1610s, from French bitumineux, from Latin bituminosus, from bitumen (see bitumen).

The Plain, wherein a black bituminous gurge Boiles out from under ground, the mouth of Hell. ["Paradise Lost," XII.41]
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Athens 
city of ancient Attica, capital of modern Greece, from Greek Athenai (plural because the city had several distinct parts), traditionally derived from Athena, but probably assimilated from a lost name in a pre-Hellenic language.
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mallow (n.)

late 14c., spelling alteration of late Old English malwe and directly from Latin malva "mallows" (source also of Modern French mauve, Spanish and Italian malva), a word from a Mediterranean substrate language. The same lost word apparently yielded Greek malakhe "mallow."

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decrement (n.)

1620s, "act or state of decreasing;" 1660s, "quantity lost by gradual waste," from Latin decrementum "diminution," from stem of decrescere "to grow less, diminish," from de "away from" (see de-) + crescere "to grow" (from PIE root *ker- (2) "to grow").

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chiasmus (n.)

in grammar, "the arrangement of repeated, parallel, or contrasted words or phrases in pairs with inversion of word order," 1850, Latinized from Greek khiasmos "a placing crosswise, diagonal arrangement" (see chi).

Adam, first of men,
To first of women, Eve.
["Paradise Lost"]
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moonstruck (adj.)

"affected in mind or health by the light of the moon; lunatic, crazed," 1670s, from moon (n.) + struck (see strike (v.)). Compare Greek selenobletos. For sense, see moon (v.). Perhaps coined by Milton ("Paradise Lost").

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revanchist (n.)

1926, "a German seeking to avenge Germany's defeat in World War I and recover lost territory," on model of French revanchiste, which had been used in reference to those in France who sought to reverse the results of the defeat of France by Prussia in 1871 (which was accomplished by World War I).

This is from revanche "revenge, requital," especially in reference to a national policy seeking return of lost territory, from French revanche "revenge," earlier revenche, back-formation from revenchier (see revenge (v.)). Used during the Cold War in Soviet propaganda in reference to West Germany. Related: Revanchism (1954).

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