Etymology
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schm- 
substituted for the initial sound of a word and reduplicated with it to convey derision (as in "Oedipus schmoedipus" in the punchline of the old joke about the Jewish mother and the psychiatrist), 1929, from the numerous Yiddish words that begin with this sound.
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ligni- 
sometimes ligno-, word-forming element used from late 19c. and meaning "wood," from Latin lignum "wood (for fuel or construction), firewood," from PIE *leg-no-, literally "that which is collected," from root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather." Related: Lignify; lignification.
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pro- 

word-forming element meaning "forward, forth, toward the front" (as in proclaim, proceed); "beforehand, in advance" (prohibit, provide); "taking care of" (procure); "in place of, on behalf of" (proconsul, pronoun); from Latin pro (adv., prep.) "on behalf of, in place of, before, for, in exchange for, just as," which also was used as a first element in compounds and had a collateral form por-.

Also in some cases from cognate Greek pro "before, in front of, sooner," which also was used in Greek as a prefix (as in problem). Both the Latin and Greek words are from PIE *pro- (source also of Sanskrit pra- "before, forward, forth;" Gothic faura "before," Old English fore "before, for, on account of," fram "forward, from;" Old Irish roar "enough"), extended form of root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before, toward, near," etc.

The common modern sense of "in favor of, favoring" (pro-independence, pro-fluoridation, pro-Soviet, etc.) was not in classical Latin and is attested in English from early 19c.

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sesqui- 

word-forming element meaning usually "one half more" than the indicated unit, from Latin sesqui-, sesque- "one and a half; one-half more," contraction of *semis-que- "a half in addition," from *semis "a half" (see semi-) + -que "and" (from PIE root *kwe "and, -ever," for which see ubiquity). Latin semi- had a tendency to get partly swallowed in compounds; compare these derivatives listed in de Vaan: selibra "half a libra," semodius "half a modius," sestertius "having the value of two-and-a-half" (as a noun, the name of a silver Roman coin, short for sestertius nummus), contracted from *semistertius; simbella "coin worth half a libella;" sincipitis "a half-head."

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histo- 
medical word-forming element, from Greek histos "warp, web," literally "anything set upright," from histasthai "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." Taken by 19c. medical writers as the best Greek root from which to form terminology for "tissue, structural element of the animal body."
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grand- 
a special use of grand (adj.) in genealogical compounds, originally with the sense of "a generation older than," first attested c. 1200, in Anglo-French graund dame "grandmother," also grandsire (late 13c.), from such use of Old French grand-, which perhaps is modeled on Latin avunculus magnus "great uncle." The partly-Englished grandmother, grandfather are from 15c. Other such words in European languages are formed with the adjectives for "old" or "best" (Danish bedstefar) or as diminutives or pet names (Greek pappos, Welsh taid). The French formation also is the model for such words in German and Dutch. Spanish abuelo is from Latin avus "grandfather" (from PIE *awo- "adult male relative other than the father;" see uncle), via Vulgar Latin *aviolus, a diminutive or adjective substitution for the noun.

The extension of the sense to corresponding relationships of descent, "a generation younger than" (grandson, granddaughter) is from Elizabethan times. The inherited PIE root, *nepot- "grandchild" (see nephew) has shifted to "nephew; niece" in English and other languages (Spanish nieto, nieta). Old English used suna sunu ("son's son"), dohtor sunu ("son's daughter").
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liparo- 
before vowels lipar-, word-forming element meaning "oily," from Greek liparos "oily, shiny with oil, fatty, greasy," used of rich soil and smooth skin; figuratively "rich, comfortable; costly, splendid," from lipos "fat" (from PIE root *leip- "to stick, adhere," also used to form words for "fat").
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pico- 

word-forming element used in making names for very small units of measure, 1915 (formally adopted as a scientific prefix meaning "one trillionth" by the International System of Units, 1960), from Spanish pico "a little over, a small balance," literally "sharp point, beak," a word of Celtic origin (compare Gaulish beccus "beak").

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pur- 

Middle English and Anglo-French perfective prefix, corresponding to Old French por-, pur- (Modern French pour), from Vulgar Latin *por-, a variant of Latin pro "before, for" (see pro-). This is the earliest form of the prefix in English, and it is retained in some words, but in others it has been corrected to Latinate pro-.

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-cide 

word-forming element meaning "killer," from French -cide, from Latin -cida "cutter, killer, slayer," from -cidere, combining form of caedere "to strike down, chop, beat, hew, fell, slay," from Proto-Italic *kaid-o-, from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike." For Latin vowel change, see acquisition. The element also can represent "killing," from French -cide, from Latin -cidium "a cutting, a killing."

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