Etymology
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learning (n.)
Old English leornung "study, action of acquiring knowledge," verbal noun from leornian (see learn). Meaning "knowledge acquired by systematic study, extensive literary and scientific culture" is from mid-14c. Learning curve attested by 1907.
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condensed (adj.)

c. 1600, "made more dense, compressed, compacted," past-participle adjective from condense. Of literary works, from 1823. Condensed milk is attested by 1863. Condensed type (1854) is thinner than compressed.

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pirate (v.)

"to rob on the high seas; commit piracy upon," 1570s, from pirate (n.). By 1706 as "appropriate and reproduce the literary or artistic work of another without right or permission; infringe on the copyright of another." Related: Pirated; pirating.

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lanky (adj.)
1630s, "straight and flat," used of hair, from lank (adj.) + -y (2). Sense of "awkwardly tall and thin" is first recorded 1818. Fowler writes that "The short form is almost only literary, the long chiefly colloquial." Related: Lankily (1848); lankiness (1846).
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Jacobean (adj.)
also Jacobian, 1770, literally "of James" (king or apostle), later (1844) especially "of the literary and architectural style of the time of James I," king of England 1603-1625. Supporters of James II after his abdication were called Jacobites (1689).
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personify (v.)

1727 "to attribute personal form to inanimate objects or abstractions" (especially as an artistic or literary technique), from person + -fy or from French personnifier (17c.), from personne. Meaning "to represent, embody" attested from 1806. Related: Personified; personifying.

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subtitle (n.)
also sub-title, 1825, "subordinate or additional title, usually explanatory," in reference to literary works, from sub- "under" + title (n.). Applied to motion pictures by 1908. As a verb from 1858. Related: Subtitled.
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backtalk (n.)
also back-talk, "impertinent retort," 1833; see back (adv.) + talk (n.). Originally often used in literary attempts at Irish or Scottish idiom. To talk back "answer impudently or rudely" is from 1849.
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flourish (n.)
c. 1500, "a blossom," from flourish (v.). Meaning "an ostentatious waving of a weapon" is from 1550s; that of "excessive literary or rhetorical embellishment" is from c. 1600; in reference to decorative curves in penmanship, 1650s; as "a fanfare of trumpets," 1590s.
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annual (n.)
c. 1400, originally "service commemorating the anniversary of a person's death," from annual (adj.) or from Late Latin annualem (nominative annualis). By 1680s as "plant that grows again or blooms every year," also as "annual literary publication."
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