Etymology
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philosophical (adj.)

late 14c., "learned, skilled in learning;" c. 1500 as "related or belonging to philosophy or philosophers;" see philosophy + -ical. Related: Philosophically.

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Talmud (n.)
body of Jewish traditional ceremonial and civil law, 1530s, from late Hebrew talmud "instruction" (c. 130 C.E.), from lamadh "he learned." Related: Talmudic; Talmudist.
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mathematician (n.)

"one skilled or learned in mathematics," early 15c., mathematicion, from Old French mathematicien, from mathematique, from Latin mathematicus "of or belonging to mathematics," from Latin mathematica (see mathematic).

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requirement (n.)

1520s, "request, requisition" (a sense now obsolete), from require + -ment. Meaning "things required, a need, something necessary" is from 1660s. Meaning "that which must be accomplished, necessary condition" is by 1841. Related: Requirements. Fowler points out that requirement "means properly a need" and requisite "a needed thing," though the distinction is a fine one.

That which is required by the nature of the case, or is only indirectly thought of as required by a person, is called a requisite ; that which is viewed as required directly by a person or persons is called a requirement ...; a requisite is more often material than a requirement ; a requisite may be a possession or something that may be viewed as a possession, but a requirement is a thing to be done or learned. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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crafty (adj.)

mid-12c., crafti, "skillful, clever, learned," from Old English cræftig "strong, powerful," later "skillful, ingenious," acquiring after c. 1200 a bad sense of "cunning, sly, skillful in scheming," the main modern sense (but through 15c. also "skillfully done or made; intelligent, learned; artful, scientific"); see craft (n.) + -y (2). Perhaps to retain a distinctly positive sense, Middle English also used craftious as "skillful, artistic" (mid-15c.). Related: Craftily; craftiness.

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vagrant (adj.)
early 15c., from Anglo-French vagarant, waucrant, and sharing with it the history to be found under vagrant (n.). Dogberry's corruption vagrom ("Much Ado about Nothing") persisted through 19c. in learned jocularity.
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seance (n.)
1789, "sitting, session," as of a learned society, from French séance "a sitting," from seoir "to sit," from Latin sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." Meaning "spiritualistic session" first recorded 1845.
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eremite (n.)
c. 1200, learned form of hermit (q.v.) based on Church Latin eremita. Since mid-17c. in poetic or rhetorical use only, except in reference to specific persons in early Church history. Related: Eremitic; eremitical.
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conundrum (n.)

1590s, an abusive term for a person, perhaps meaning "a pedant;" c. 1600, "a whim;" 1640s, "pun or word-play," a word of unknown origin, said in 17c. to be Oxford University slang. Perhaps the sort of ponderous mock-Latin word that was once the height of humor in learned circles; Skeat suggests Latin conandrum "a thing to be attempted" as the source. Also spelled quonundrum.

From 1745 as "a riddle in which some odd resemblance is proposed between things quite unlike, the answer often involving a pun." (An example from 1745: "Why is a Sash-Window like a Woman in Labour? because 'tis full of Panes").

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grounded (adj.)
late 14c., "learned, instructed thoroughly in the basics;" 1540s as "firmly fixed or established," past-participle adjective from ground (v.). Electrical sense is from 1889. Meaning "having been denied privileges" is from 1940s. Dickens had room-ridden "confined to one's room."
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