Etymology
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asthenosphere (n.)
layer of the Earth's upper mantle, 1914, literally "sphere of weakness" (by comparison with the lithosphere), from Greek asthenes "weak" (see asthenia) + sphere.
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lamination (n.)
1670s, "action of beating into thin plates," noun of action from laminate (v.). Meaning "any layer of laminated substance" is from 1858; meaning "process of manufacturing laminated products" is from 1945.
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aquifer (n.)

"water-bearing layer of rock," 1897, from Latin aqui-, combining form of aqua "water" (from PIE root *akwa- "water") + -fer "bearing," from ferre "to bear, carry" (from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry").

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ectoderm (n.)

"outer layer of cells or outer membrane of a metazoan animal," 1853, from ecto- + -derm. Coined by Prussian embryologist Robert Remak (1815-1865). Related: Ectodermal.

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topping (n.)
"an act of putting a top on," c. 1500, verbal noun from top (v.). Meaning "an act of cutting the top off" is from 1510s. Meaning "top layer of a food" is from 1839,
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varve (n.)
"annual deposit of silt in a lake bed," 1912, from Swedish varv "turn, layer," related to Old Norse hverfa, Old English hwerfan "to turn round" (see wharf).
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membrane (n.)

early 15c., "thin layer of skin or soft tissue of the body," a term in anatomy, from Latin membrana "a skin, membrane; parchment (skin prepared for writing)," from membrum "limb, member of the body" (see member). The etymological sense is "that which covers the members of the body."

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cuticle (n.)

1610s, "outer layer of the skin, epidermis," from Latin cuticula, diminutive of cutis "skin," from PIE root *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal" (source also of hide (n.1)). Specialized sense of "skin at the base of the nail" is from 1907. Related: Cuticular.

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hydroplane (v.)
by 1908, "to skim the surface of water by use of hydroplanes," from hydroplane (n.). Meaning "skid on a thin layer of water" (especially of automobile tires) first recorded 1962, properly aquaplane (itself from 1961 in this sense). Related: Hydroplaned; hydroplaning.
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raddle (v.)

"color coarsely with red or rouge," 1630s, from raddle (n.) "red ochre used as paint, layer of red pigment" (mid-14c.), fromrad, a variant of red. Related: Raddled, raddling.

                     As it were to dream of
morticians' daughters raddled but amorous
[Pound, from Canto LXXIV]
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