Etymology
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Cloris 

fem. proper name, from Chloris, Latin form of Greek Khloris, goddess of flowers (later identified with Roman Flora), literally "greenness, freshness," poetic fem. of khlōros "greenish-yellow, pale green; fresh," related to khloē "young green shoot," from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives denoting "green" and "yellow."

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Sarmatia 

name of an ancient region extending vaguely westward from the River Volga, Latin Sarmatia, from Greek Sarmatēs, their name for an ancient tribe which wandered the plains of easternmost Europe until it merged with other peoples (their language apparently was an Iranian tongue); later poetically identified with Poland. Related: Sarmatian.

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Cleveland 

city in Ohio, U.S., laid out 1796 by Gen. Moses Cleaveland (1754-1806) and later named for him. His descendants included U.S. President Grover Cleveland (1837-1908). The family name (attested from 12c.) is from one of several place names in England based on Middle English cleove, a variant of cliff.

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Lego 
1954, proprietary name (in use since 1934, according to the company), from Danish phrase leg godt "play well." The founder, Danish businessman Ole Kirk Christiansen (1891-1958), didn't realize until later that the word meant "I study" or "I put together" in Latin.
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Byzantine (adj.)
pertaining to Byzantium (q.v., original name of Constantinople, modern Istanbul), 1770, from Late Latin Byzantinus; originally used of the style of art and architecture developed there 4c.-5c. C.E.; later in reference to the complex, devious, and intriguing character of the royal court of Constantinople (1937). As a noun from 1770. Byzantian is from 1610s.
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Rhodes scholar (n.)

holder of any of the scholarships founded at Oxford in 1902 by British financier and imperialist Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902), for whom the former African colony of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) also was named. The surname is literally "dweller by a clearing," from Old English rodu "plot of land of one square rod." Related: Rhodesia; Rhodesian.

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Smithfield 
place in London, celebrated at least since 17c. as a market for cattle and horses, later the central meat market. In various colloquial expressions. Originally Smethefield, from Old English smethe "smooth" (see smooth (adj.)). Smithfield ham (1908, American English) is from a town of that name in Virginia.
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Edinburgh 
older than King Edwin of Northumbria (who often is credited as the source of the name); originally Din Eidyn, Celtic, perhaps literally "fort on a slope." Later the first element was trimmed off and Old English burh "fort" added in its place." Dunedin in New Zealand represents an attempt at the original form.
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Clarence 

surname, from Medieval Latin Clarencia, name of dukedom created 1362 for Lionel, third son of Edward III, so called from the town of Clare, Suffolk, whose heiress Lionel married. Used as a masc. proper name from late 19c. As a type of four-wheeled closed carriage, named for the Duke of Clarence, later William IV.

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Castile 

medieval Spanish county and later kingdom, from Vulgar Latin *castilla, from Latin castella, plural of castellum "castle, fort, citadel, stronghold" (see castle (n.)); so called in reference to the many fortified places there during the Moorish wars. The name in Spanish is said to date back to c.800. Related: Castilian. As a fine kind of soap, in English from 1610s.

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