Etymology
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checkmate (n.)

mid-14c., in chess, said of a king when it is in check and cannot escape it, from Old French eschec mat (Modern French échec et mat), which (with Spanish jaque y mate, Italian scacco-matto) is from Arabic shah mat "the king died" (see check (n.1)), which according to Barnhart is a misinterpretation of Persian mat "be astonished" as mata "to die," mat "he is dead." Hence Persian shah mat, if it is the ultimate source of the word, would be literally "the king is left helpless, the king is stumped."

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Jacobean (adj.)
also Jacobian, 1770, literally "of James" (king or apostle), later (1844) especially "of the literary and architectural style of the time of James I," king of England 1603-1625. Supporters of James II after his abdication were called Jacobites (1689).
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Theseus 
legendary hero-king of Athens; the name is of uncertain origin.
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Balthazar 
masc. proper name, from French, from Latin, from Greek Baltasar, from Hebrew Belteshatztzar, Biblical king of Babylon (who "saw the writing on the wall"), from Babylonian Balat-shar-usur, literally "save the life of the king." As a type of very large wine bottle by 1935, in allusion to Daniel v.1.
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maharajah (n.)

also maharaja, a title born by some Indian princes who ruled extensive realms, 1690s, from Hindi, "great king," from Sanskrit maha "great" (from PIE root *meg- "great") + rajan "king" (see rajah). The fem. equivalent is maharani (1855).

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Negus 

title of the ruler of Abyssinia, 1590s, from Amharic (Semitic) negush "king," from stem of nagasha "he forced, ruled."

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Regulus (n.)

bright white star in constellation Leo, 1550s, Modern Latin, apparently first so-called by Copernicus, literally "little king," diminutive of rex "king" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). Probably a translation of Basiliskos "little king," a Hellenistic Greek name for the star, mentioned in Geminos and Ptolemy (in the "Almagest," though elsewhere in his writings it is usually "the star on the heart of Leo"); perhaps a translation of Lugal "king," said to have been the star's Babylonian name. Klein holds it to be a corruption of Arabic rijl (al-asad) "paw of the lion" (compare Rigel).

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Arthurian (adj.)
"pertaining to the series of tales of British King Arthur and his knights," 1793, from Arthur + -ian.
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thegn (n.)
"military tenant of an Anglo-Saxon king," 1848, a modern revival of an Old English form; see thane.
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Bathsheba 
Biblical wife of King David, mother of Solomon, from Hebrew Bathshebha, literally "daughter of the oath," from bath "daughter."
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