Etymology
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sheeney (n.)
"a Jew," 1816, of unknown origin; perhaps related to Russian zhid, Polish żyd, Czech zid "a Jew." Now a vulgar term of abuse, but used before c. 1870 by Jews and Gentiles without intent of insult.
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gonoph (n.)
also gonof, "thief, pickpocket," London slang, 1852, said to have been introduced by German Jews, from Hebrew gannabh "thief," with form altered in English as if from gone off.
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psalter (n.)

"the Book of Psalms," Middle English sauter, psauter, from Old English saltere, psaltere, Old French sautier, psaltier, and directly from Church Latin psalterium "the songs of David," in secular Latin, "stringed instrument played by twanging," from Greek psaltērion "stringed instrument, psaltery, harp," from psallein "to pluck, play on a stringed instrument" (see psalm).

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matzoh (n.)

also matzo, "flat piece of unleavened bread eaten by Jews during the Passover," 1846, from Hebrew matztzah (plural matztzoth) "unleavened bread," literally "juiceless," from stem of matzatz "he sucked out, drained out."

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Palestinian 

1875 (adj.) "of or pertaining to the Holy Land;" 1905 (n.) "an inhabitant of Palestine," from Palestine + -ian. Also in early use with reference to Jews who settled or advocated Jewish settlement in that place.

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pre-adamite (n.)

also preadamite, "one who lived before Adam," 1660s, from pre- + Adam + -ite. Originally in reference to the supposed progenitors of the Gentiles, based on a belief that the biblical Adam was the first parent only of the Jews and their kin.

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planxty (n.)

in Irish music, "harp tune of a sportive and animated character" [OED], 1790, of unknown origin, evidently not a native Irish word. According to OED, some suggest ultimate derivation from Latin plangere "to strike, beat" (from PIE root *plak- (2) "to strike"). See also Katrin Thier, "Of Picts and Penguins -- Celtic Languages in the New Edition of the OED," in "The Celtic Languages in Contact," 2007.

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hip (interj.)
exclamation used to introduce a united cheer (as in hip-hip-hurrah), 1827, earlier hep; compare German hepp, to animals a cry to attack game, to mobs a cry to attack Jews (see hep (2)); perhaps a natural sound (such as Latin eho, heus).
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pogrom (n.)

"organized massacre in Russia against a particular class or people, especially the Jews," 1882, from Yiddish pogrom, from Russian pogromu "devastation, destruction," from po- "by, through, behind, after" (cognate with Latin post-; see post-) + gromu "thunder, roar," from PIE imitative root *ghrem- (see grim).

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synagogue (n.)
late 12c., "the regular public worship of the Jews," also the building in which this is done, from Old French sinagoge "synagogue, mosque, pagan temple" (11c., Modern French synagogue), from Late Latin synagoga "congregation of Jews," from Greek synagoge "place of assembly, synagogue; meeting, assembly," literally "a bringing together," from synagein "to gather, bring together, assemble," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + agein "put in motion, move," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move."

Used by Greek translators of the Old Testament as a loan-translation of late Hebrew keneseth "assembly" (as in beth keneseth "synagogue," literally "house of assembly;" compare Knesset). Related: Synagogical; synagogal.
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