Etymology
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Ephraim 
masc. personal name, in Old Testament the younger son of Joseph, also the name of the tribe descended from him, and sometimes used figuratively for "Kingdom of Israel;" Greek form of Hebrew Ephrayim, a derivative of parah "was fruitful" (related to Aramaic pera "fruit").
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refusenik (n.)

"Soviet Jew who has been refused permission to emigrate to Israel," 1975, a partial translation (with English refuse (v.)) of Russian otkaznik, from otkazat "to refuse." Also see -nik. English agent noun refuser is attested from late 15c.

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Canaan 
ancient name of a land lying between the Jordan and the Mediterranean promised to the children of Israel and conquered by them, so called from Canaan, son of Ham (Genesis x.15-19). Related: Canaanite. In the Apostle name Simon the Canaanite it is a transliteration of an Aramaic name meaning "zealot."
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fisk (v.)
2002, an internet argument tactic involving a reprinting of a text, interlarded with rebuttals and refutations. Named for English journalist Robert Fisk (b.1946), Middle East correspondent for the "Independent," whose writing often criticizes America and Israel and is somewhat noted for looseness with details. Critics responded in this style. Related: Fisked; fisking.
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Hasidim 
also Chasidim, "adherents of a conservative Jewish religious movement founded 1750 by Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer Baal Shem Tobh," 1812, from Hebrew hasidhim, literally "pious ones," plural of hasidh "kind, pious." Earlier the Hebrew word was used in reference to an anti-Hellenistic faction during the time of the Maccabean Wars.
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scallion (n.)

late 14c., scalun "shallot," kind of common onion, also "thing of little value," from Anglo-French escalone, Old North French escalogne, or Old French eschaloigne, all from Vulgar Latin *escalonia, from Latin (cæpa) Ascalonia "(onion) from Ascalon," the seaport in the southwestern Levant (modern Ashkelon in Israel). Cognate with shallot.

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Carmelite (n.)
member of an order of mendicant friars (also White Friars) founded 12c. by Berthold of Calabria on Mount Carmel overlooking the bay of Acre in what is now northwestern Israel; mid-15c., from Medieval Latin Carmelites. The order as re-established in 16c. Spain by St. Theresa had both monks and nuns.
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David 

masc. proper name, in Old Testament name of the second king of Israel and Judah and author of psalms, from Hebrew Dawidh, literally "darling, beloved friend." The name was common in England and Scotland by 12c. but was popular much earlier in Wales. A nickname form was Dawe, hence surnames Dawson, Dawkins. A top 10 name for boys born in the U.S. from 1934 to 1992. Related: Davidic; Davidian.

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manna (n.)

Old English borrowing from Late Latin manna, from Greek manna, from Hebrew mān, probably literally "substance exuded by the tamarisk tree," but used in Greek and Latin specifically with reference to the substance miraculously supplied to the Children of Israel during their wandering in the Wilderness (Exodus xvi.15). The Hebrew word often is referred to man "a gift." Meaning "spiritual nourishment" is attested from late 14c. Generalized sense of "something provided unexpectedly" is from 1590s.

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theocracy (n.)
Origin and meaning of theocracy
1737; earlier as un-Latinized theocraty (1620s), "form of government in which God is recognized as supreme ruler and his laws form the statute book," originally of the sacerdotal government of Israel before the rise of kings, from later Greek theokratia (Josephus), literally "the rule of God," from theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts) + kratos "a rule, regime, strength" (see -cracy). Meaning "priestly or religious body wielding political and civil power" is recorded from 1825. Related: Theocratic (1741).
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