Etymology
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resilience (n.)
Origin and meaning of resilience

1620s, "act of rebounding or springing back," often of immaterial things, from Latin resiliens, present participle of resilire "to rebound, recoil," from re- "back" (see re-) + salire "to jump, leap" (see salient (adj.)). Compare result (v.). In physical sciences, the meaning "elasticity, power of returning to original shape after compression, etc." is by 1824.

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repository (n.)

late 15c. (Caxton), "vessel, etc., for storage," from French repositoire or directly from Late Latin repositorium "store," in classical Latin, "a stand on which food is placed," from noun use of repositus, past participle of reponere "put away, store" (see repose (v.2)).

The figurative sense of "place where anything immaterial is thought of as stored" is recorded from 1640s; commercial sense of "place where things are kept for sale" is by 1759.

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patrimony (n.)

mid-14c., patrimoine, "property of the Church," also "spiritual legacy of Christ," from Old French patremoine "heritage, patrimony" (12c.) and directly from Latin patrimonium "a paternal estate, inheritance from a father," also figurative, from pater (genitive patris) "father" (see father (n.)) + -monium, suffix signifying action, state, condition.

In English law, the meaning "right or property inherited from a father or ancestors" is attested from late 14c. Figurative sense of "immaterial things handed down from the past, heritage" is from 1580s. A curious sense contrast to matrimony.

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massive (adj.)

c. 1400, massif, "forming or consisting of a large mass, having great size and weight or solidity," from Old French massif "bulky, solid," from masse "lump" (see mass (n.1)). Of immaterial things, "substantial, great or imposing in scale," 1580s. Related: Massively; massiveness.

U.S. Cold War deterrent strategy of massive retaliation "threat of using thermonuclear weapons in response to aggression against the United States or its allies by the Soviet Union," whether nuclear or conventional, was introduced by Secretary of State J.F. Dulles in a speech on Jan. 12, 1954.

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impart (v.)

early 15c., "to give a part of (one's possessions);" late 15c., "to share, take part in," from Old French empartir, impartir "assign, allot, allocate, share out" (14c.), from Late Latin impartire (also impertire) "to share in, divide with another; communicate," from assimilated form of in- "into, in" (from PIE root *en "in") + partire "to divide, part" (from pars "a part, piece, a share," from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

Meaning "communicate as knowledge or information" is from 1540s; the word was not originally restricted to immaterial things but now usually is only in reference to qualities. Related: Imparted; imparting; impartment.

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grave (adj.)

1540s, "influential, respected; marked by weighty dignity," from French grave (Old French greve "terrible, dreadful," 14c.), from Latin gravis, "heavy, ponderous, burdensome, loaded; pregnant;" of matters, "weighty, important;" of sounds, "deep, low, bass;" figuratively "oppressive, hard to bear, troublesome, grievous," from PIE root *gwere- (1) "heavy."

In English, the sense "solemn, sober" is from 1580s; of immaterial things, "important, serious" 1590s. Greek barys (opposed to kouphos) also was used figuratively, of suffering, sorrow, sobbing, and could mean "oppressive, burdensome, grave, dignified, impressive." The noun meaning "accent mark over a vowel" is c. 1600, from French.

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animism (n.)

"attribution of living souls to inanimate objects," 1866, reintroduced by English anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Taylor (1832-1917), who defined it (1871) as the "theory of the universal animation of nature," from Latin anima "life, breath, soul" (from PIE root *ane- "to breathe") + -ism.

Earlier sense was of "doctrine that animal life is produced by an immaterial soul" (1832), from German Animismus, coined c. 1720 by physicist/chemist Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734) based on the concept of the anima mundi. Animist is attested from 1819, in Stahl's sense. Related: Animisic.

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stale (adj.)

c. 1300, "freed from dregs or lees" (of ale, wine, etc.), probably literally "having stood long enough to clear," from Old French estale "settled, clear," from estal "place, fixed position," from Frankish *stal- "position," from Proto-Germanic *stol-, from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand, put in order," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place.

Cognate with Middle Dutch stel "stale" (of beer and old urine). Originally a desirable quality (in beer and wine); the meaning "not fresh" is first recorded late 15c. Figurative sense (of immaterial things) "old and trite, hackneyed" is recorded from 1560s. As a noun, "that which has become tasteless by exposure," hence "a prostitute" (in Shakespeare, etc.). Related: Staleness.

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bereave (v.)

Middle English bireven, from Old English bereafian "to deprive of, take away by violence, seize, rob," from be- + reafian "rob, plunder," from Proto-Germanic *raubōjanan, from PIE *runp- "to break" (see corrupt (adj.)). A common Germanic formation; compare Old Frisian biravia "despoil, rob, deprive (someone of something)," Old Saxon biroban, Dutch berooven, Old High German biroubon, German berauben, Gothic biraubon.

Since mid-17c., mostly in reference to life, hope, loved ones, and other immaterial possessions. Past tense forms bereaved and bereft have co-existed since 14c., now slightly differentiated in meaning, the former applied to loss of loved ones, the latter to circumstances.

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orphanage (n.)

1570s, "condition of being an orphan," from orphan (n.) + -age. Meaning "home for orphans" is by 1850. Other words for "condition of being an orphan" have included orphanhood (1670s); orphancy (1580s); orphanism (1590s); orphanship (1670s); and Middle English had orphanite "desolation, wretchedness" (mid-15c.). Also in the sense of "home for orphans" were orphan house (1711); orphan-asylum (1796); orphanry (1872).

ORPHANAGE ... is a very incorrect expression for an orphan-home. Fancy a "girlage" for a girl's home. "Orphanry," like pheasantry, diary, aviary, is the proper word, though I believe it is in no dictionary. "Orphanotrophy" is enough to send one off in atrophy — a word fearful and amazing. "Orphanhood" is a good word, and expresses the state of being an orphan. That the root of the word is Greek, and the affix English, is, I think, immaterial, because the word "orphan" is so thoroughly Anglicised that we are never thinking of [orphanos] when use it. [Notes and Queries, Jan. 20, 1872]
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