late 14c., enpechement "accusation, charge," from Old French empeechement "difficulty, hindrance; (legal) impeachment," from empeechier "to hinder, impede" (see impeach). As a judicial proceeding on charges of maladministration against a public official, from 1640s.
"back part of a gun or firearm," 1570s, from singular of breeches (q.v.) in the sense "lower part of the body," hence "the hinder part of anything" (especially the part of a cannon or firearm behind the barrel). Breech-loader is from 1858.
late 14c., "hinder, impede the movement of," originally by fastening a block of wood to something, from clog (n.). Meaning "choke up with extraneous matter" is 1670s; intransitive sense "become choked up with extraneous matter" is from 1755. Related: Clogged; clogging.
"weary by too much, fill to loathing, surfeit," 1520s, from Middle English cloyen "hinder movement, encumber" (late 14c.), a shortening of accloyen (early 14c.), from Old French encloer "to fasten with a nail, grip, grasp," figuratively "to hinder, check, stop, curb," from Late Latin inclavare "drive a nail into a horse's foot when shoeing," from Latin clavus "a nail" (from PIE root *klau- "hook").
Accloye is a hurt that cometh of shooing, when a Smith driveth a nail in the quick, which make him to halt. [Edward Topsell, "The History of Four-footed Beasts," 1607]
The figurative meaning "fill to a satiety, overfill" is attested for accloy from late 14c. Related: Cloyed; cloying.
late 15c., retarden, "make slow or slower; keep back, hinder, delay" (transitive), from French retarder "restrain, hold (someone) back, keep (someone from doing something); come to a stop" (13c.) and directly from Latin retardare "make slow, delay, keep back, hinder" (see retardation). Related: Retarded; retarding. The intransitive sense of "be delayed" is from 1640s.
The noun retard is recorded from 1788 in the sense "retardation, delay;" from 1970 in the offensive meaning "retarded person," originally American English, with accent on first syllable. Other words used for "one who is mentally retarded" include retardate (1956, from Latin retardatus), and U.S. newspapers 1950s-60s often used retardee (1950).
1610s, "prevent by anticipative action," from Latin praecludere "to close, shut off; hinder, impede," from prae "before, ahead" (see pre-) + claudere "to shut" (see close (v.)). The more literal sense of "close, shut up, prevent access to" (1620s) probably is obsolete. Related: Precluded; precluding.
mid-15c., discoragen, "deprive of or cause to lose courage," from Old French descoragier "dishearten" (Modern French décourager), from des- "away" (see dis-) + coragier, from corage "spirit" (see courage). Meaning "express disapproval or opposition, dissuade or hinder from" is from 1640s. Related: Discouraged; discouragement; discouraging.
1857, in golf, from stymie (n.) "condition in which an opponent's ball blocks the hole" (1834); of uncertain origin, perhaps from Scottish stymie "person who sees poorly," from stime "the least bit" (early 14c.), itself of uncertain origin. General sense of "block, hinder, thwart" is from 1902. Related: Stymied.