Etymology
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Cappadocia (n.)

ancient name of a province and kingdom of Asia Minor, roughly corresponding to modern Turkey, from Greek Kappadokía, perhaps ultimately from Persian Hvaspadakhim "land of fine horses." In ancient Athens, Cappadocians were notorious as knaves and cowards, but the region's horses were celebrated.

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realm (n.)

c. 1300, reaume, "kingdom, domain under a sovereign, royal jurisdiction," from Old French reaume, later realme, variants (in part by influence of Old French reial "regal," from Latin  regalis) of roiaume "kingdom."

This is possibly from a Gallo-Romance *regiminem, "formed as an accusative on Latin regimen government, rule" [Barnhart; see regimen], or from or as if from Vulgar Latin *regalimen "a kingdom," from Latin regalis [Century Dictionary, OED; see regal], or some combination of the two [Klein]. Realty and royalty tended to come out of Old French in similar forms, and roylty in Middle English also could be spelled realty. (14c., from Old French reaute, realte).

The modern spelling predominates from c. 1600. Transferred or figurative sense of "sphere of activity; area of power, influence, or operation" is from late 14c.

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united states (n.)

attested from 1617, originally with reference to Holland; the North American confederation first so called in 1776. United Provinces were the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, allied from 1579, later developing into the kingdom of Holland.

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cashmere (n.)

also Cassimere, etc., "type of fine, soft woolen fabric," favored for shawls, etc., 1839, short for Cashmere wool, from the old spellings of Kashmir, the Himalayan kingdom where wool was obtained from long-haired goats. As "shawl made of cashmere wool" from 1822.

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Dahomey 

18c.-19c. West African kingdom, a native name of unknown etymology. Made a French protectorate in 1894, it gained full independence in 1960, and in 1975 changed its name to Benin. Related: Dahoman, Dahomean.

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Mali 

modern African nation, known by that name from 1959, formerly French Sudan. The name is that of a former African kingdom (13c.-14c.), perhaps from Malinke, name of an indigenous people of the region. Related: Malian.

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Grenada 

West Indies island, discovered by Columbus Aug, 15, 1498, and named by him Concepción, the place later was renamed for the old Spanish kingdom or city of Granada. Related: Grenadian.

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Bahrain 

island kingdom in the Persian Gulf, from Arabic al-bahrayn "the two seas," from dual form of bahr "sea;" so called in reference to the bodies of water on either side of it. Related: Bahraini.

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Cumbrian (adj.)

1747, "of or pertaining to the early medieval principality or kingdom of Cumbria or Strathclyde, from the Latin name of Cumberland. By 1780 in a modern sense "belonging to the Lake District." Cumbric as "the extinct Celtic language of Cumbria" is by 1950.

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Mauritania 

name of a modern nation (since 1960) and ancient kingdom of northwest Africa, also the name of a Roman province corresponding to parts of modern Morocco and Algeria, from Latin Mauretania, from Greek Mauritania, "the country of the Mauri" (Greek Mauroi, singular Mauros; see Moor). Related: Mauritanian.

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